New English Translation
1 Now[a] many have undertaken to compile an account[b] of the things[c] that have been fulfilled[d] among us, 2 like the accounts[e] passed on[f] to us by those who were eyewitnesses and servants of the word[g] from the beginning.[h] 3 So[i] it seemed good to me as well,[j] because I have followed[k] all things carefully from the beginning, to write an orderly account[l] for you, most excellent Theophilus, 4 so that you may know for certain[m] the things you were taught.[n]
Birth Announcement of John the Baptist
5 During the reign[o] of Herod[p] king of Judea, there lived a priest named Zechariah who belonged to[q] the priestly division of Abijah,[r] and he had a wife named Elizabeth,[s] who was a descendant of Aaron.[t] 6 They[u] were both righteous in the sight of God, following[v] all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blamelessly.[w] 7 But they did not have a child, because Elizabeth was barren,[x] and they were both very old.[y]
8 Now[z] while Zechariah[aa] was serving as priest before God when his division was on duty,[ab] 9 he was chosen by lot, according to the custom of the priesthood,[ac] to enter[ad] the Holy Place[ae] of the Lord and burn incense. 10 Now[af] the whole crowd[ag] of people were praying[ah] outside at the hour of the incense offering.[ai] 11 An[aj] angel of the Lord,[ak] standing on the right side of the altar of incense, appeared[al] to him. 12 And Zechariah, visibly shaken when he saw the angel,[am] was seized with fear.[an] 13 But the angel said to him, “Do not be afraid, Zechariah, for your prayer has been heard,[ao] and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son; you[ap] will name him John.[aq] 14 Joy and gladness will come[ar] to you, and many will rejoice at[as] his birth,[at] 15 for he will be great in the sight of[au] the Lord. He[av] must never drink wine or strong drink, and he will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even before his birth.[aw] 16 He[ax] will turn[ay] many of the people[az] of Israel to the Lord their God. 17 And he will go as forerunner before the Lord[ba] in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers back to their children and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just,[bb] to make ready for the Lord a people prepared for him.”
18 Zechariah[bc] said to the angel, “How can I be sure of this?[bd] For I am an old man, and my wife is old as well.”[be] 19 The[bf] angel answered him, “I am Gabriel, who stands[bg] in the presence of God, and I was sent to speak to you and to bring[bh] you this good news. 20 And now,[bi] because you did not believe my words, which will be fulfilled in their time,[bj] you will be silent, unable to speak,[bk] until the day these things take place.”
21 Now[bl] the people were waiting for Zechariah, and they began to wonder[bm] why he was delayed in the Holy Place.[bn] 22 When[bo] he came out, he was not able to speak to them. They[bp] realized that he had seen a vision[bq] in the Holy Place,[br] because[bs] he was making signs to them and remained unable to speak.[bt] 23 When his time of service was over,[bu] he went to his home.
24 After some time[bv] his wife Elizabeth became pregnant,[bw] and for five months she kept herself in seclusion.[bx] She said,[by] 25 “This is what[bz] the Lord has done for me at the time[ca] when he has been gracious to me,[cb] to take away my disgrace[cc] among people.”[cd]
Birth Announcement of Jesus the Messiah
26 In the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy,[ce] the angel Gabriel[cf] was sent by[cg] God to a town of Galilee called Nazareth,[ch] 27 to a virgin engaged[ci] to a man whose name was Joseph, a descendant of David,[cj] and the virgin’s name was Mary. 28 The[ck] angel[cl] came[cm] to her and said, “Greetings, favored one,[cn] the Lord is with you!”[co] 29 But[cp] she was greatly troubled[cq] by his words and began to wonder about the meaning of this greeting.[cr] 30 So[cs] the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid,[ct] Mary, for you have found favor[cu] with God! 31 Listen:[cv] You will become pregnant[cw] and give birth to[cx] a son, and you will name him[cy] Jesus.[cz] 32 He[da] will be great,[db] and will be called the Son of the Most High,[dc] and the Lord God will give him the throne of his father[dd] David. 33 He[de] will reign over the house of Jacob[df] forever, and his kingdom will never end.” 34 Mary[dg] said to the angel, “How will this be, since I have not been intimate with[dh] a man?” 35 The angel replied,[di] “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow[dj] you. Therefore the child[dk] to be born[dl] will be holy;[dm] he will be called the Son of God.
36 “And look,[dn] your relative[do] Elizabeth has also become pregnant with[dp] a son in her old age—although she was called barren, she is now in her sixth month![dq] 37 For nothing[dr] will be impossible with God.” 38 So[ds] Mary said, “Yes,[dt] I am a servant[du] of the Lord; let this happen to me[dv] according to your word.”[dw] Then[dx] the angel departed from her.
Mary and Elizabeth
39 In those days[dy] Mary got up and went hurriedly into the hill country, to a town of Judah,[dz] 40 and entered Zechariah’s house and greeted Elizabeth. 41 When[ea] Elizabeth heard Mary’s greeting, the baby leaped[eb] in her[ec] womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit.[ed] 42 She[ee] exclaimed with a loud voice,[ef] “Blessed are you among women,[eg] and blessed is the child[eh] in your womb! 43 And who am I[ei] that the mother of my Lord should come and visit me? 44 For the instant[ej] the sound of your greeting reached my ears,[ek] the baby in my womb leaped for joy.[el] 45 And blessed[em] is she who believed that[en] what was spoken to her by[eo] the Lord would be fulfilled.”[ep]
Mary’s Hymn of Praise
“My soul exalts[es] the Lord,[et]
47 and my spirit has begun to rejoice[eu] in God my Savior,
48 because he has looked upon the humble state of his servant.[ev]
For[ew] from now on[ex] all generations will call me blessed,[ey]
49 because he who is mighty[ez] has done great things for me, and holy is his name;
50 from[fa] generation to generation he is merciful[fb] to those who fear[fc] him.
51 He has demonstrated power[fd] with his arm; he has scattered those whose pride wells up from the sheer arrogance[fe] of their hearts.
52 He has brought down the mighty[ff] from their thrones, and has lifted up those of lowly position;[fg]
53 he has filled the hungry with good things,[fh] and has sent the rich away empty.[fi]
54 He has helped his servant Israel, remembering[fj] his mercy,[fk]
55 as he promised[fl] to our ancestors,[fm] to Abraham and to his descendants[fn] forever.”
The Birth of John
57 Now the time came[fr] for Elizabeth to have her baby,[fs] and she gave birth to a son. 58 Her[ft] neighbors and relatives heard that the Lord had shown[fu] great mercy to her, and they rejoiced[fv] with her.
59 On[fw] the eighth day[fx] they came to circumcise the child, and they wanted to name[fy] him Zechariah after his father. 60 But[fz] his mother replied,[ga] “No! He must be named[gb] John.”[gc] 61 They[gd] said to her, “But[ge] none of your relatives bears this name.”[gf] 62 So[gg] they made signs to the baby’s[gh] father,[gi] inquiring what he wanted to name his son.[gj] 63 He[gk] asked for a writing tablet[gl] and wrote,[gm] “His name is John.” And they were all amazed.[gn] 64 Immediately[go] Zechariah’s[gp] mouth was opened and his tongue[gq] released,[gr] and he spoke, blessing God. 65 All[gs] their neighbors were filled with fear, and throughout the entire hill country of Judea all these things were talked about. 66 All[gt] who heard these things[gu] kept them in their hearts,[gv] saying, “What then will this child be?”[gw] For the Lord’s hand[gx] was indeed with him.
Zechariah’s Praise and Prediction
68 “Blessed[ha] be the Lord God of Israel,
because he has come to help[hb] and has redeemed[hc] his people.
69 For[hd] he has raised up[he] a horn of salvation[hf] for us in the house of his servant David,[hg]
70 as he spoke through the mouth of his holy prophets from long ago,[hh]
71 that we should be saved[hi] from our enemies,[hj]
and from the hand of all who hate us.
72 He has done this[hk] to show mercy[hl] to our ancestors,[hm]
and to remember his holy covenant[hn]—
73 the oath[ho] that he swore to our ancestor[hp] Abraham.
This oath grants[hq]
74 that we, being rescued from the hand of our[hr] enemies,
may serve him without fear,[hs]
75 in holiness and righteousness[ht] before him for as long as we live.[hu]
76 And you, child,[hv] will be called the prophet[hw] of the Most High.[hx]
For you will go before[hy] the Lord to prepare his ways,[hz]
77 to give his people knowledge of salvation[ia] through the forgiveness[ib] of their sins.
78 Because of[ic] our God’s tender mercy[id]
the dawn[ie] will break[if] upon us from on high
79 to give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death,[ig]
to guide our feet into the way[ih] of peace.”
The Census and the Birth of Jesus
2 Now[im] in those days a decree[in] went out from Caesar[io] Augustus[ip] to register[iq] all the empire[ir] for taxes. 2 This was the first registration, taken when Quirinius was governor[is] of Syria. 3 Everyone[it] went to his own town[iu] to be registered. 4 So[iv] Joseph also went up from the town of Nazareth[iw] in Galilee to Judea, to the city[ix] of David called Bethlehem,[iy] because he was of the house[iz] and family line[ja] of David. 5 He went[jb] to be registered with Mary, who was promised in marriage to him,[jc] and who was expecting a child. 6 While[jd] they were there, the time came for her to deliver her child.[je] 7 And she gave birth to her firstborn son and wrapped him in strips of cloth[jf] and laid him in a manger,[jg] because there was no place for them in the inn.[jh]
The Shepherds’ Visit
8 Now[ji] there were shepherds[jj] nearby[jk] living out in the field, keeping guard[jl] over their flock at night. 9 An[jm] angel of the Lord[jn] appeared to[jo] them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were absolutely terrified.[jp] 10 But the angel said to them, “Do not be afraid! Listen carefully,[jq] for I proclaim to you good news[jr] that brings great joy to all the people: 11 Today[js] your Savior is born in the city[jt] of David.[ju] He is Christ[jv] the Lord. 12 This[jw] will be a sign[jx] for you: You will find a baby wrapped in strips of cloth and lying in a manger.”[jy] 13 Suddenly[jz] a vast, heavenly army[ka] appeared with the angel, praising God and saying,
15 When[ke] the angels left them and went back to heaven, the shepherds said to one another, “Let us go over to Bethlehem and see this thing that has taken place, that the Lord[kf] has made known to us.” 16 So they hurried off and located Mary and Joseph, and found the baby lying in a manger.[kg] 17 When[kh] they saw him,[ki] they related what they had been told[kj] about this child, 18 and all who heard it were astonished[kk] at what the shepherds said. 19 But Mary treasured up all these words, pondering in her heart what they might mean.[kl] 20 So[km] the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising[kn] God for all they had heard and seen; everything was just as they had been told.[ko]
Jesus’ Presentation at the Temple
22 Now[kr] when the time came for their[ks] purification according to the law of Moses, Joseph and Mary[kt] brought Jesus[ku] up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord 23 (just as it is written in the law of the Lord, “Every firstborn male[kv] will be set apart to the Lord”[kw]), 24 and to offer a sacrifice according to what is specified in the law of the Lord, a pair of doves[kx] or two young pigeons.[ky]
The Prophecy of Simeon
25 Now[kz] there was a man in Jerusalem named Simeon who was righteous[la] and devout, looking for the restoration[lb] of Israel, and the Holy Spirit[lc] was upon him. 26 It[ld] had been revealed[le] to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not die[lf] before[lg] he had seen the Lord’s Christ.[lh] 27 So[li] Simeon,[lj] directed by the Spirit,[lk] came into the temple courts,[ll] and when the parents brought in the child Jesus to do for him what was customary according to the law,[lm] 28 Simeon[ln] took him in his arms and blessed God, saying,[lo]
29 “Now, according to your word,[lp] Sovereign Lord,[lq] permit[lr] your servant[ls] to depart[lt] in peace.
30 For my eyes have seen your salvation[lu]
31 that you have prepared in the presence of all peoples:[lv]
32 a light,[lw]
for revelation to the Gentiles,
and for glory[lx] to your people Israel.”
33 So[ly] the child’s[lz] father[ma] and mother were amazed[mb] at what was said about him. 34 Then[mc] Simeon blessed them and said to his mother Mary, “Listen carefully:[md] This child[me] is destined to be the cause of the falling and rising[mf] of many in Israel and to be a sign that will be rejected.[mg] 35 Indeed, as a result of him the thoughts[mh] of many hearts will be revealed[mi]—and a sword[mj] will pierce your own soul as well!”[mk]
The Testimony of Anna
36 There was also a prophetess, Anna the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was very old,[ml] having been married to her husband for seven years until his death. 37 She had lived as a widow since then for eighty-four years.[mm] She never left the temple, worshiping with fasting and prayer night and day.[mn] 38 At that moment,[mo] she came up to them[mp] and began to give thanks to God and to speak[mq] about the child[mr] to all who were waiting for the redemption of Jerusalem.[ms]
39 So[mt] when Joseph and Mary[mu] had performed[mv] everything according to the law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to their own town[mw] of Nazareth. 40 And the child grew and became strong,[mx] filled with wisdom,[my] and the favor[mz] of God[na] was upon him.
Jesus in the Temple
41 Now[nb] Jesus’[nc] parents went to Jerusalem every[nd] year for the Feast of the Passover.[ne] 42 When[nf] he was twelve years old,[ng] they went up[nh] according to custom. 43 But[ni] when the feast was over,[nj] as they were returning home,[nk] the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. His[nl] parents[nm] did not know it, 44 but (because they assumed that he was in their group of travelers)[nn] they went a day’s journey. Then[no] they began to look for him among their relatives and acquaintances.[np] 45 When[nq] they did not find him, they returned to Jerusalem[nr] to look for him. 46 After[ns] three days[nt] they found him in the temple courts,[nu] sitting among the teachers,[nv] listening to them and asking them questions. 47 And all who heard Jesus[nw] were astonished[nx] at his understanding and his answers. 48 When[ny] his parents[nz] saw him, they were overwhelmed. His[oa] mother said to him, “Child,[ob] why have you treated[oc] us like this? Look, your father and I have been looking for you anxiously.”[od] 49 But[oe] he replied,[of] “Why were you looking for me?[og] Didn’t you know that I must be in my Father’s house?”[oh] 50 Yet[oi] his parents[oj] did not understand[ok] the remark[ol] he made[om] to them. 51 Then[on] he went down with them and came to Nazareth, and was obedient[oo] to them. But[op] his mother kept all these things[oq] in her heart.[or]
52 And Jesus increased[os] in wisdom and in stature, and in favor with God and with people.
- Luke 1:1 tn Grk “Since” or “Because.” This begins a long sentence that extends through v. 4. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English style to use shorter sentences, the Greek sentence has been divided up into shorter English sentences in the translation.
- Luke 1:1 tn This is sometimes translated “narrative,” but the term itself can refer to an oral or written account. It is the verb “undertaken” which suggests a written account, since it literally is “to set one’s hand” to something (BDAG 386 s.v. ἐπιχειρέω). “Narrative” is too specific, denoting a particular genre of work for the accounts that existed in the earlier tradition. Not all of that material would have been narrative.
- Luke 1:1 tn Or “events.”
- Luke 1:1 tn Or “have been accomplished.” Given Luke’s emphasis on divine design (e.g., Luke 24:43-47) a stronger sense (“fulfilled”) is better than a mere reference to something having taken place (“accomplished”).
- Luke 1:2 tn Grk “even as”; this compares the recorded tradition of 1:1 with the original eyewitness tradition of 1:2.
- Luke 1:2 tn Or “delivered.”
- Luke 1:2 sn The phrase eyewitnesses and servants of the word refers to a single group of people who faithfully passed on the accounts about Jesus. The language about delivery (passed on) points to accounts faithfully passed on to the early church.
- Luke 1:2 tn Grk “like the accounts those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word passed on to us.” The location of “in the beginning” in the Greek shows that the tradition is rooted in those who were with Jesus from the start.
- Luke 1:3 tn The conjunction “so” is supplied here to bring out the force of the latter part of this Greek sentence, which the translation divides up because of English style. Luke, in compiling his account, is joining a tradition with good precedent.
- Luke 1:3 sn When Luke says it seemed good to me as well he is not being critical of the earlier accounts, but sees himself stepping into a tradition of reporting about Jesus to which he will add uniquely a second volume on the early church when he writes the Book of Acts.
- Luke 1:3 tn Grk “having followed”; the participle παρηκολουθηκότι (parēkolouthēkoti) has been translated causally.
- Luke 1:3 sn An orderly account does not necessarily mean that all events are recorded in the exact chronological sequence in which they occurred, but that the account produced is an orderly one. This could include, for example, thematic or topical order rather than strict chronological order.
- Luke 1:4 tn Or “know the truth about”; or “know the certainty of.” The issue of the context is psychological confidence; Luke’s work is trying to encourage Theophilus. So in English this is better translated as “know for certain” than “know certainty” or “know the truth,” which sounds too cognitive. “Certain” assumes the truth of the report. On this term, see Acts 2:36; 21:34; 22:30; 25:26. The meaning “have assurance concerning” is also possible here.
- Luke 1:4 tn Or “you heard about.” This term can refer merely to a report of information (Acts 21:24) or to instruction (Acts 18:25). The scope of Luke’s Gospel as a whole, which calls for perseverance in the faith and which assumes much knowledge of the OT, suggests Theophilus had received some instruction and was probably a believer.
- Luke 1:5 tn Grk “It happened that in the days.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- Luke 1:5 sn Herod was Herod the Great, who ruled Palestine from 37 b.c. until he died in 4 b.c. He was known for his extensive building projects (including the temple in Jerusalem) and for his cruelty.
- Luke 1:5 tn Grk “of,” but the meaning of the preposition ἐκ (ek) is more accurately expressed in contemporary English by the relative clause “who belonged to.”
- Luke 1:5 sn There were twenty-four divisions of priesthood and the priestly division of Abijah was eighth on the list according to 1 Chr 24:10.
- Luke 1:5 tn Grk “and her name was Elizabeth.”
- Luke 1:5 tn Grk “a wife of the daughters of Aaron.”sn It was not unusual for a priest to have a wife from a priestly family (a descendant of Aaron); this was regarded as a special blessing.
- Luke 1:6 tn Grk “And they.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
- Luke 1:6 tn Grk “walking in” (an idiom for one’s lifestyle).sn The description of Zechariah and Elizabeth as following…blamelessly was not to say that they were sinless, but that they were faithful and pious. Thus a practical righteousness is meant here (Gen 6:8; Deut 28:9).
- Luke 1:6 tn The predicate adjective has the effect of an adverb here (BDF §243).
- Luke 1:7 sn Elizabeth was barren. Both Zechariah and Elizabeth are regarded by Luke as righteous in the sight of God, following all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blamelessly (v. 6). With this language, reminiscent of various passages in the OT, Luke is probably drawing implicit comparisons to the age and barrenness of such famous OT personalities as Abraham and Sarah (see, e.g., Gen 18:9-15), the mother of Samson (Judg 13:2-5), and Hannah, the mother of Samuel (1 Sam 1:1-20). And, as it was in the case of these OT saints, so it is with Elizabeth: After much anguish and seeking the Lord, she too is going to have a son in her barrenness. In that day it was a great reproach to be childless, for children were a sign of God’s blessing (cf. Gen 1:28; Lev 20:20-21; Pss 127 and 128; Jer 22:30). As the dawn of salvation draws near, however, God will change this elderly couple’s grief into great joy and grant them the one desire time had rendered impossible.
- Luke 1:7 tn Grk “were both advanced in days” (an idiom for old age).
- Luke 1:8 tn Grk “Now it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- Luke 1:8 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Zechariah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 1:8 tn Grk “serving as priest in the order of his division before God.”sn Zechariah’s division would be on duty twice a year for a week at a time.
- Luke 1:9 tn Grk “according to the custom of the priesthood it fell to him by lot.” The order of the clauses has been rearranged in the translation to make it clear that the prepositional phrase κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἱερατείας (kata to ethos tēs hierateias, “according to the custom of the priesthood”) modifies the phrase “it fell to him by lot” rather than the preceding clause.
- Luke 1:9 tn This is an aorist participle and is temporally related to the offering of incense, not to when the lot fell.
- Luke 1:9 tn Or “temple.” Such sacrifices, which included the burning of incense, would have occurred in the holy place according to the Mishnah (m. Tamid 1.2; 3.1; 5-7). A priest would have given this sacrifice, which was offered for the nation, once in one’s career. It would be offered either at 9 a.m. or 3 p.m., since it was made twice a day.
- Luke 1:10 tn Grk “And,” but “now” better represents the somewhat parenthetical nature of this statement in the flow of the narrative.
- Luke 1:10 tn Grk “all the multitude.” While “assembly” is sometimes used here to translate πλῆθος (plēthos), that term usually implies in English a specific or particular group of people. However, this was simply a large group gathered outside, which was not unusual, especially for the afternoon offering.
- Luke 1:10 tn The plural verb is used here on the probability that the crowd acted as individuals, each person praying on their own but at the same time. English versions are divided on how they handle this; see, e.g., NRSV, HCSB, which have the singular verb “was praying.”
- Luke 1:10 tn The “hour of the incense offering” is another way to refer to the time of sacrifice.
- Luke 1:11 tn Grk “And an angel.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, δέ (de) has not been translated here.
- Luke 1:11 tn Or “the angel of the Lord.” Linguistically, “angel of the Lord” is the same in both testaments (and thus, he is either “an angel of the Lord” or “the angel of the Lord” in both testaments). For arguments and implications, see ExSyn 252; M. J. Davidson, “Angels,” DJG, 9; W. G. MacDonald argues for “an angel” in both testaments: “Christology and ‘The Angel of the Lord’,” Current Issues in Biblical and Patristic Interpretation, 324-35.
- Luke 1:11 sn This term is often used to describe a supernatural appearance (24:34; Acts 2:3; 7:2, 30, 35; 9:17; 13:31; 16:9; 26:16).
- Luke 1:12 tn The words “the angel” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
- Luke 1:12 tn Or “and he was afraid”; Grk “fear fell upon him.” Fear is common when supernatural agents appear (1:29-30, 65; 2:9; 5:8-10; 9:34; 24:38; Exod 15:16; Judg 6:22-23; 13:6, 22; 2 Sam 6:9).
- Luke 1:13 tn The passive means that the prayer was heard by God.sn Your prayer has been heard. Zechariah’s prayer while offering the sacrifice would have been for the nation, but the answer to the prayer also gave them a long hoped-for child, a hope they had abandoned because of their old age.
- Luke 1:13 tn Grk “a son, and you”; καί (kai) has not been translated. Instead a semicolon is used in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- Luke 1:13 tn Grk “you will call his name John.” The future tense here functions like a command (see ExSyn 569-70). This same construction occurs in v. 31.sn “Do not be afraid…you must call his name John.” This is a standard birth announcement (see Gen 16:11; Isa 7:14; Matt 1:21; Luke 1:31).
- Luke 1:14 tn Grk “This will be joy and gladness.”
- Luke 1:14 tn Or “because of.”
- Luke 1:14 tn “At his birth” is more precise as the grammatical subject (1:58), though “at his coming” is a possible force, since it is his mission, as the following verses note, that will really bring joy.
- Luke 1:15 tn Grk “before.”
- Luke 1:15 tn Grk “and he”; because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun in the translation.
- Luke 1:15 tn Grk “even from his mother’s womb.” While this idiom may be understood to refer to the point of birth (“even from his birth”), Luke 1:41 suggests that here it should be understood to refer to a time before birth.sn He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even before his birth. This is the language of the birth of a prophet (Judg 13:5, 7; Isa 49:1; Jer 1:5; Sir 49:7); see 1:41 for the first fulfillment.
- Luke 1:16 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:16 sn The word translated will turn is a good summary term for repentance and denotes John’s call to a change of direction (Luke 3:1-14).
- Luke 1:16 tn Grk “sons,” but clearly this is a generic reference to people of both genders.
- Luke 1:17 tn Grk “before him”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 1:17 sn These two lines cover all relationships: Turn the hearts of the fathers back to their children points to horizontal relationships, while (turn) the disobedient to the wisdom of the just shows what God gives from above in a vertical manner.
- Luke 1:18 tn Grk “And Zechariah.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:18 tn Grk “How will I know this?”
- Luke 1:18 tn Grk “is advanced in days” (an idiom for old age).
- Luke 1:19 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:19 tn Grk “the one who is standing before God.”
- Luke 1:19 tn Grk “to announce these things of good news to you.”
- Luke 1:20 tn Grk “behold.”
- Luke 1:20 sn The predicted fulfillment in the expression my words, which will be fulfilled in their time takes place in Luke 1:63-66.
- Luke 1:20 sn Silent, unable to speak. Actually Zechariah was deaf and mute as 1:61-63 indicates, since others had to use gestures to communicate with him.
- Luke 1:21 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
- Luke 1:21 tn The imperfect verb ἐθαύμαζον (ethaumazon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.
- Luke 1:21 tn Or “temple.” See the note on the phrase “the holy place” in v. 9.
- Luke 1:22 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:22 tn Grk “and they.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:22 tn That is, “he had had a supernatural encounter in the holy place,” since the angel came to Zechariah by the altar. This was not just a “mental experience.”
- Luke 1:22 tn Or “temple.” See the note on the phrase “the holy place” in v. 9.
- Luke 1:22 tn Grk “and,” but the force is causal or explanatory in context.
- Luke 1:22 tn Grk “dumb,” but this could be understood to mean “stupid” in contemporary English, whereas the point is that he was speechless.
- Luke 1:23 tn Grk “And it happened that as the days of his service were ended.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- Luke 1:24 tn Grk “After these days.” The phrase refers to a general, unspecified period of time that passes before fulfillment comes.
- Luke 1:24 tn Or “Elizabeth conceived.”
- Luke 1:24 sn The text does not state why Elizabeth withdrew into seclusion, nor is the reason entirely clear.
- Luke 1:24 tn Grk “she kept herself in seclusion, saying.” The participle λέγουσα (legousa) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
- Luke 1:25 tn Grk “Thus.”
- Luke 1:25 tn Grk “in the days.”
- Luke 1:25 tn Grk “has looked on me” (an idiom for taking favorable notice of someone).
- Luke 1:25 sn Barrenness was often seen as a reproach or disgrace (Lev 20:20-21; Jer 22:30), but now at her late age (the exact age is never given in Luke’s account), God had miraculously removed it (see also Luke 1:7).
- Luke 1:25 tn Grk “among men,” but the context clearly indicates a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos) here.
- Luke 1:26 tn Grk “in the sixth month.” The phrase “of Elizabeth’s pregnancy” was supplied in the translation to clarify the exact time meant by this reference. That Elizabeth’s pregnancy is meant is clear from vv. 24-25.
- Luke 1:26 sn Gabriel is the same angel mentioned previously in v. 19. He is traditionally identified as an angel who brings revelation (see Dan 8:15-16; 9:21). Gabriel and Michael are the only two good angels named in the Bible.
- Luke 1:26 tn Or “from.” The account suggests God’s planned direction in these events, so “by” is better than “from,” as six months into Elizabeth’s pregnancy, God acts again.
- Luke 1:26 sn Nazareth was a town in the region of Galilee, located north of Samaria and Judea. Galilee extended from about 45 to 85 miles north of Jerusalem and was about 30 miles in width. Nazareth was a very small village and was located about 15 miles west of the southern edge of the Sea of Galilee.
- Luke 1:27 tn Or “promised in marriage.”
- Luke 1:27 tn Grk “Joseph, of the house of David.” sn The Greek word order here favors connecting Davidic descent to Joseph, not Mary, in this remark.
- Luke 1:28 tn Grk “And coming to her.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:28 tn Grk “And coming to her, he said”; the referent (the angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 1:28 tn Grk “coming to her, he said.” The participle εἰσελθών (eiselthōn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
- Luke 1:28 tn The address, “favored one” (a perfect participle, Grk “Oh one who is favored”) points to Mary as the recipient of God’s grace, not a bestower of it. She is a model saint in this passage, one who willingly receives God’s benefits. The Vulgate rendering “full of grace” suggests something more of Mary as a bestower of grace, but does not make sense here contextually.
- Luke 1:28 tc Most mss (A C D Θ ƒ13 33 M latt sy) read here εὐλογημένη σὺ ἐν γυναιξίν (eulogēmenē su en gunaixin, “blessed are you among women”) which also appears in 1:42 (where it is textually certain). This has the earmarks of a scribal addition for balance; the shorter reading, attested by the most significant witnesses and several others (א B L W Ψ ƒ1 565 579 700 1241 co), is thus preferred.
- Luke 1:29 tc Most mss (A C Θ 0130 ƒ13 M lat sy) have ἰδοῦσα (idousa, “when [she] saw [the angel]”) here as well, making Mary’s concern the appearance of the angel. This construction is harder than the shorter reading since it adds a transitive verb without an explicit object. However, the shorter reading has significant support (א B D L W Ψ ƒ1 565 579 1241 sa) and on balance should probably be considered authentic.
- Luke 1:29 sn On the phrase greatly troubled see 1:12. Mary’s reaction was like Zechariah’s response.
- Luke 1:29 tn Grk “to wonder what kind of greeting this might be.” Luke often uses the optative this way to reveal a figure’s thinking (3:15; 8:9; 18:36; 22:23).
- Luke 1:30 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Gabriel’s statement is a response to Mary’s perplexity over the greeting.
- Luke 1:30 sn Do not be afraid. See 1:13 for a similar statement to Zechariah.
- Luke 1:30 tn Or “grace.” sn The expression found favor is a Semitism, common in the OT (Gen 6:8; 18:3; 43:14; 2 Sam 15:25). God has chosen to act on this person’s behalf.
- Luke 1:31 tn Grk “And behold.”
- Luke 1:31 tn Grk “you will conceive in your womb.”
- Luke 1:31 tn Or “and bear.”
- Luke 1:31 tn Grk “you will call his name.”
- Luke 1:31 tn See v. 13 for a similar construction.sn You will name him Jesus. This verse reflects the birth announcement of a major figure; see 1:13; Gen 16:7; Judg 13:5; Isa 7:14. The Greek form of the name Iēsous, which was translated into Latin as Jesus, is the same as the Hebrew Yeshua (Joshua), which means “Yahweh saves” (Yahweh is typically rendered as “Lord” in the OT). It was a fairly common name among Jews in 1st century Palestine, as references to a number of people by this name in the LXX and Josephus indicate.
- Luke 1:32 tn Grk “this one.”
- Luke 1:32 sn Compare the description of Jesus as great here with 1:15, “great before the Lord.” Jesus is greater than John, since he is Messiah compared to a prophet. Great is stated absolutely without qualification to make the point.
- Luke 1:32 sn The expression Most High is a way to refer to God without naming him. Such avoiding of direct reference to God was common in 1st century Judaism out of reverence for the divine name.
- Luke 1:32 tn Or “ancestor.”
- Luke 1:33 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. A new sentence is begun here in the translation because of the length of the sentence in Greek.
- Luke 1:33 tn Or “over Israel.”sn The expression house of Jacob refers to Israel. This points to the Messiah’s relationship to the people of Israel.
- Luke 1:34 tn Grk “And Mary.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:34 tn Grk “have not known.” The expression in the Greek text is a euphemism for sexual relations. Mary seems to have sensed that the declaration had an element of immediacy to it that excluded Joseph. Many modern translations render this phrase “since I am a virgin,” but the Greek word for virgin is not used in the text.
- Luke 1:35 tn Grk “And the angel said to her.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. The pronoun αὐτῇ (autē, “to her”) has not been included in the translation since it is redundant in contemporary English.
- Luke 1:35 sn The phrase will overshadow is a reference to God’s glorious presence at work (Exod 40:34-35; Ps 91:4).
- Luke 1:35 tn Or “the one born holy will be called the Son of God.” The wording of this phrase depends on whether the adjective is a predicate adjective, as in the text, or is an adjective modifying the participle serving as the subject. The absence of an article with the adjective speaks for a predicate position. Other less appealing options supply a verb for “holy”; thus “the one who is born will be holy”; or argue that both “holy” and “Son of God” are predicates, so “The one who is born will be called holy, the Son of God.”
- Luke 1:35 tc A few mss (C* Θ ƒ1 33 pc) add “by you” here. This looks like a scribal addition to bring symmetry to the first three clauses of the angel’s message (note the second person pronoun in the previous two clauses), and is too poorly supported to be seriously considered as authentic.
- Luke 1:35 tn Or “Therefore the holy child to be born will be called the Son of God.” There are two ways to understand the Greek phrase τὸ γεννώμενον ἅγιον (to gennōmenon hagion) here. First, τὸ γεννώμενον could be considered a substantival participle with ἅγιον as an adjective in the second predicate position, thus making a complete sentence; this interpretation is reflected in the translation above. Second, τὸ ἅγιον could be considered a substantival adjective with γεννώμενον acting as an adjectival participle, thus making the phrase the subject of the verb κληθήσεται (klēthēsetai); this interpretation is reflected in the alternative reading. Treating the participle γεννώμενον as adjectival is a bit unnatural for the very reason that it forces one to understand ἅγιον as substantival; this introduces a new idea in the text with ἅγιον when an already new topic is being introduced with γεννώμενον. Semantically this would overload the new subject introduced at this point. For this reason the first interpretation is preferred.
- Luke 1:36 tn Grk “behold.”
- Luke 1:36 tn Some translations render the word συγγενίς (sungenis) as “cousin” (so Phillips) but the term is not necessarily this specific.
- Luke 1:36 tn Or “has conceived.”
- Luke 1:36 tn Grk “and this is the sixth month for her who was called barren.” Yet another note on Elizabeth’s loss of reproach also becomes a sign of the truth of the angel’s declaration.
- Luke 1:37 tn In Greek, the phrase πᾶν ῥῆμα (pan rhēma, combined with a negation in the verse is translated as “nothing”) has an emphatic position, giving it emphasis as the lesson in the entire discussion. The remark is a call for faith.
- Luke 1:38 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
- Luke 1:38 tn Grk “behold.”
- Luke 1:38 tn Traditionally, “handmaid”; Grk “slave woman.” Though δούλη (doulē) is normally translated “woman servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free woman serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v. δοῦλος). One good translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος) in that it often indicates one who sells himself or herself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force.
- Luke 1:38 tn Grk “let this be to me.”
- Luke 1:38 sn The remark according to your word is a sign of Mary’s total submission to God’s will, a response that makes her exemplary.
- Luke 1:38 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 1:39 sn The expression In those days is another general time reference, though the sense of the context is that the visit came shortly after Mary miraculously conceived and shortly after the announcement about Jesus.
- Luke 1:39 sn The author does not say exactly where Elizabeth stayed. The location is given generally as a town of Judah. Judah is about a three day trip south of Nazareth.
- Luke 1:41 tn Grk “And it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here either.
- Luke 1:41 sn When the baby leaped John gave his first testimony about Jesus, a fulfillment of 1:15.
- Luke 1:41 tn The antecedent of “her” is Elizabeth.
- Luke 1:41 sn The passage makes clear that Elizabeth spoke her commentary with prophetic enablement, filled with the Holy Spirit.
- Luke 1:42 tn Grk “and she.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:42 tn Grk “and she exclaimed with a great cry and said.” The verb εἶπεν (eipen, “said”) has not been included in the translation since it is redundant in contemporary English.
- Luke 1:42 sn The commendation Blessed are you among women means that Mary has a unique privilege to be the mother of the promised one of God.
- Luke 1:42 tn Grk “fruit,” which is figurative here for the child she would give birth to.
- Luke 1:43 tn Grk “From where this to me?” The translation suggests the note of humility and surprise that Elizabeth feels in being a part of these events. The ἵνα (hina) clause which follows explains what “this” is. A literal translation would read “From where this to me, that is, that the mother of my Lord comes to visit me?”
- Luke 1:44 tn Grk “for behold.”
- Luke 1:44 tn Grk “when the sound of your greeting [reached] my ears.”
- Luke 1:44 sn On the statement the baby in my womb leaped for joy see both 1:14 and 1:47. This notes a fulfillment of God’s promised word.
- Luke 1:45 sn Again the note of being blessed makes the key point of the passage about believing God.
- Luke 1:45 tn This ὅτι (hoti) clause, technically indirect discourse after πιστεύω (pisteuō), explains the content of the faith, a belief in God’s promise coming to pass.
- Luke 1:45 tn That is, “what was said to her (by the angel) at the Lord’s command” (BDAG 756 s.v. παρά A.2).
- Luke 1:45 tn Grk “that there would be a fulfillment of what was said to her from the Lord.”sn This term speaks of completion of something planned (2 Chr 29:35).
- Luke 1:46 tc A few witnesses, especially Latin mss, (a b l* Irarm Orlat mss Nic) read “Elizabeth” here, since she was just speaking, but the ms evidence overwhelmingly supports “Mary” as the speaker.
- Luke 1:46 sn The following passage has been typeset as poetry because many scholars regard this passage as poetic or hymnic. These terms are used broadly to refer to the genre of writing, not to the content. There are two broad criteria for determining if a passage is poetic or hymnic: “(a) stylistic: a certain rhythmical lilt when the passages are read aloud, the presence of parallelismus membrorum (i.e., an arrangement into couplets), the semblance of some metre, and the presence of rhetorical devices such as alliteration, chiasmus, and antithesis; and (b) linguistic: an unusual vocabulary, particularly the presence of theological terms, which is different from the surrounding context” (P. T. O’Brien, Philippians [NIGTC], 188-89). Classifying a passage as hymnic or poetic is important because understanding this genre can provide keys to interpretation. However, not all scholars agree that the above criteria are present in this passage, so the decision to typeset it as poetry should be viewed as a tentative decision about its genre.
- Luke 1:46 tn Or “lifts up the Lord in praise.”
- Luke 1:46 sn This psalm (vv. 46-55) is one of the few praise psalms in the NT. Mary praises God and then tells why both in terms of his care for her (vv. 46-49) and for others, including Israel (vv. 50-55). Its traditional name, the “Magnificat,” comes from the Latin for the phrase My soul magnifies the Lord at the hymn’s start.
- Luke 1:47 tn Or “rejoices.” The translation renders this aorist, which stands in contrast to the previous line’s present tense, as ingressive, which highlights Mary’s joyous reaction to the announcement. A comprehensive aorist is also possible here.
- Luke 1:48 tn See the note on the word “servant” in v. 38.
- Luke 1:48 tn Grk “for behold.”
- Luke 1:48 sn From now on is a favorite phrase of Luke’s, showing how God’s acts change things from this point on (5:10; 12:52; 22:18, 69; Acts 18:6).
- Luke 1:48 sn Mary is seen here as an example of an object of God’s grace (blessed) for all generations.
- Luke 1:49 tn Traditionally, “the Mighty One.”
- Luke 1:50 tn Grk “and from.” Here καί (kai) has been translated by a semicolon to improve the English style.
- Luke 1:50 sn God’s mercy refers to his “loyal love” or “steadfast love,” expressed in faithful actions, as the rest of the psalm illustrates.
- Luke 1:50 tn That is, “who revere.” This refers to those who show God a reverential respect for his sovereignty.
- Luke 1:51 tn Or “shown strength,” “performed powerful deeds.” The verbs here switch to aorist tense through 1:55. This is how God will act in general for his people as they look to his ultimate deliverance.
- Luke 1:51 tn Grk “in the imaginations of their hearts.” The psalm rebukes the arrogance of the proud, who think that power is their sovereign right. Here διανοίᾳ (dianoia) can be understood as a dative of sphere or reference/respect.
- Luke 1:52 tn Or “rulers.”
- Luke 1:52 tn Or “those of humble position”sn The contrast between the mighty and those of lowly position is fundamental for Luke. God cares for those that the powerful ignore (Luke 4:18-19).
- Luke 1:53 sn Good things refers not merely to material blessings, but blessings that come from knowing God.
- Luke 1:53 sn Another fundamental contrast of Luke’s is between the hungry and the rich (Luke 6:20-26).
- Luke 1:54 tn Or “because he remembered mercy,” understanding the infinitive as causal.
- Luke 1:54 tn Or “his [God’s] loyal love.”
- Luke 1:55 tn Grk “as he spoke.” Since this is a reference to the covenant to Abraham, ἐλάλησεν (elalēsen) can be translated in context “as he promised.” God keeps his word.
- Luke 1:55 tn Grk “fathers.”
- Luke 1:55 tn Grk “his seed” (an idiom for offspring or descendants).
- Luke 1:56 tn Grk “And.” Here (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the topic.
- Luke 1:56 tn Grk “her”; the referent (Elizabeth) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 1:56 sn As is typical with Luke the timing is approximate (about three months), not specific.
- Luke 1:57 tn Grk “the time was fulfilled.”
- Luke 1:57 tn The words “her baby” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.
- Luke 1:58 tn Grk “And her.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:58 tn Grk “had magnified his mercy with her.”
- Luke 1:58 tn The verb συνέχαιρον (sunechairon) is an imperfect and could be translated as an ingressive force, “they began to rejoice.”
- Luke 1:59 tn Grk “And it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:59 sn They were following OT law (Lev 12:3) which prescribed that a male child was to be circumcised on the eighth day.
- Luke 1:59 tn This could be understood as a conative imperfect, expressing an unrealized desire (“they were trying to name him”). It has been given more of a voluntative nuance in the translation.
- Luke 1:60 tn Grk “And,” but with clearly contrastive emphasis in context.
- Luke 1:60 tn Grk “his mother answering, said.” The combination of participle and finite verb is redundant in English and has been simplified to “replied” in the translation.
- Luke 1:60 tn This future passive indicative verb has imperatival force and thus has been translated “he must be named.”
- Luke 1:60 sn “No! He must be named John.” By insisting on the name specified by the angel, Elizabeth (v. 60) and Zechariah (v. 63) have learned to obey God (see Luke 1:13).
- Luke 1:61 tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:61 tn The word “but” is not in the Greek text but has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 1:61 tn Grk “There is no one from your relatives who is called by this name.”
- Luke 1:62 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the consequential nature of the action described.
- Luke 1:62 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the baby) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 1:62 sn The crowd was sure there had been a mistake, so they appealed to the child’s father. But custom was not to be followed here, since God had spoken. The fact they needed to signal him (made signs) shows that he was deaf as well as unable to speak.
- Luke 1:62 tn Grk “what he might wish to call him.”
- Luke 1:63 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:63 sn The writing tablet requested by Zechariah would have been a wax tablet.
- Luke 1:63 tn Grk “and wrote, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
- Luke 1:63 sn The response, they were all amazed, expresses a mixture of surprise and reflection in this setting where they were so certain of what the child’s name would be.
- Luke 1:64 tn Grk “And immediately.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 1:64 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Zechariah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 1:64 sn The mention of both mouth and tongue here is a figure called zeugma and emphasizes that the end of the temporary judgment came instantly and fully upon Zechariah’s expression of faith in naming the child. He had learned to trust and obey God during his short period of silence. He had learned from his trial.
- Luke 1:64 tn “Released” is implied; in the Greek text both στόμα (stoma) and γλῶσσα (glōssa) are subjects of ἀνεῴχθη (aneōchthē), but this would be somewhat redundant in English.
- Luke 1:65 tn Grk “And all.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.sn Fear is the emotion that comes when one recognizes something unusual, even supernatural, has taken place.
- Luke 1:66 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. A new sentence was begun at this point in the translation because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence.
- Luke 1:66 tn Grk “heard”; the referent (these things, from the previous verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 1:66 tn Grk “heart.” The term “heart” (καρδία, kardia) could also be translated as “mind,” or “thoughts,” and the entire phrase be rendered as “kept them in mind,” “thought about,” or the like. But the immediate context is clearly emotive, suggesting that much more is at work than merely the mental processes of thinking or reasoning about “these things.” There is a sense of joy and excitement (see the following question, “What then will this child be?”) and even fear. Further, the use of καρδία in 1:66 suggests connections with the same term in 2:19 where deep emotion is being expressed as well. Therefore, recognizing both the dramatic nature of the immediate context and the literary connections to 2:19, the translation renders the term in 1:66 as “hearts” to capture both the cognitive and emotive aspects of the people’s response.
- Luke 1:66 tn Or “what manner of child will this one be?”
- Luke 1:66 sn The reference to the Lord’s hand indicates that the presence, direction, and favor of God was with him (Acts 7:9b).
- Luke 1:67 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 1:67 tn Grk “and he prophesied, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant and has not been translated.sn Prophesied. The reference to prophecy reflects that Zechariah is enabled by the Spirit to speak God’s will. He does so in this case through a praise psalm, which calls for praise and then gives the reason why God should be praised.
- Luke 1:68 sn The traditional name of this psalm, the “Benedictus,” comes from the Latin wording of the start of the hymn (“Blessed be…”).
- Luke 1:68 sn The verb come to help can refer to a visit, but can also connote concern or assistance (L&N 85.11).
- Luke 1:68 tn Or “has delivered”; Grk “has accomplished redemption.” sn Has redeemed is a reference to redemption, but it anticipates the total release into salvation that the full work of Messiah will bring for Israel. This involves both spiritual and material benefits eventually.
- Luke 1:69 tn Grk “and,” but specifying the reason for the praise in the psalm.
- Luke 1:69 sn The phrase raised up means for God to bring someone significant onto the scene of history.
- Luke 1:69 sn The horn of salvation is a figure that refers to the power of Messiah and his ability to protect, as the horn refers to what an animal uses to attack and defend (Pss 75:4-5, 10; 148:14; 2 Sam 22:3). Thus the meaning of the figure is “a powerful savior.”
- Luke 1:69 sn In the house of his servant David is a reference to Messiah’s Davidic descent. Zechariah is more interested in Jesus than his own son John at this point.
- Luke 1:70 tn Grk “from the ages,” “from eternity.”
- Luke 1:71 tn Grk “from long ago, salvation.”
- Luke 1:71 sn The theme of being saved from our enemies is like the release Jesus preached in Luke 4:18-19. Luke’s narrative shows that one of the enemies in view is Satan and his cohorts, with the grip they have on humanity.
- Luke 1:72 tn The words “He has done this” (referring to the raising up of the horn of salvation from David’s house) are not in the Greek text, but are supplied to allow a new sentence to be started in the translation. The Greek sentence is lengthy and complex at this point, while contemporary English uses much shorter sentences.
- Luke 1:72 sn Mercy refers to God’s loyal love (steadfast love) by which he completes his promises. See Luke 1:50.
- Luke 1:72 tn Or “our forefathers”; Grk “our fathers.” This begins with the promise to Abraham (vv. 55, 73), and thus refers to many generations of ancestors.
- Luke 1:72 sn The promises of God can be summarized as being found in the one promise (the oath that he swore) to Abraham (Gen 12:1-3).
- Luke 1:73 tn This is linked back grammatically by apposition to “covenant” in v. 72, specifying which covenant is meant.
- Luke 1:73 tn Or “forefather”; Grk “father.”
- Luke 1:73 tn Again for reasons of English style, the infinitival clause “to grant us” has been translated “This oath grants” and made the beginning of a new sentence in the translation.
- Luke 1:74 tc Many significant early mss (א B L W  ƒ1,13 565 892) lack “our,” while most (A C D [K] Θ Ψ 0177 33 M) supply it. Although the addition is most likely not authentic, “our” has been included in the translation due to English stylistic requirements.
- Luke 1:74 tn This phrase in Greek is actually thrown forward to the front of the verse to give it emphasis.
- Luke 1:75 sn The phrases that we…might serve him…in holiness and righteousness from Luke 1:74-75 well summarize a basic goal for a believer in the eyes of Luke. Salvation frees us up to serve God without fear through a life full of ethical integrity.
- Luke 1:75 tn Grk “all our days.”
- Luke 1:76 sn Now Zechariah describes his son John (you, child) through v. 77.
- Luke 1:76 tn Or “a prophet,” but since Greek nouns can be definite without the article, and since in context this is a reference to the eschatological forerunner of the Messiah (cf. John 1:17), the concept is better conveyed to the English reader by the use of the definite article “the.”
- Luke 1:76 sn In other words, John is a prophet of God; see 1:32 and 7:22-23, 28.
- Luke 1:76 tc Most mss, especially the later ones (A C D L Θ Ψ 0130 ƒ1,13 33 M sy), have πρὸ προσώπου κυρίου (pro prosōpou kuriou, “before the face of the Lord”), but the translation follows the reading ἐνώπιον κυρίου (enōpion kuriou, “before the Lord”), which has earlier and better ms support (P4 א B W 0177) and is thus more likely to be authentic.
- Luke 1:76 tn This term is often translated in the singular, looking specifically to the forerunner role, but the plural suggests the many elements in that salvation.sn On the phrase prepare his ways see Isa 40:3-5 and Luke 3:1-6.
- Luke 1:77 sn John’s role, to give his people knowledge of salvation, is similar to that of Jesus (Luke 3:1-14; 5:31-32).
- Luke 1:77 sn Forgiveness is another major Lukan theme (Luke 4:18; 24:47; Acts 10:37).
- Luke 1:78 tn For reasons of style, a new sentence has been started in the translation at this point. God’s mercy is ultimately seen in the deliverance John points to, so v. 78a is placed with the reference to Jesus as the light of dawning day.
- Luke 1:78 sn God’s loyal love (steadfast love) is again the topic, reflected in the phrase tender mercy; see Luke 1:72.
- Luke 1:78 sn The Greek term translated dawn (ἀνατολή, anatolē) can be a reference to the morning star or to the sun. The Messiah is pictured as a saving light that shows the way. The Greek term was also used to translate the Hebrew word for “branch” or “sprout,” so some see a double entendre here with messianic overtones (see Isa 11:1-10; Jer 23:5; 33:15; Zech 3:8; 6:12).
- Luke 1:78 tn Grk “shall visit us.”
- Luke 1:79 sn On the phrases who sit in darkness…and…death see Isa 9:1-2; 42:7; 49:9-10.
- Luke 1:79 tn Or “the path.”
- Luke 1:80 tn This verb is imperfect.
- Luke 1:80 tn This verb is also imperfect.
- Luke 1:80 tn Or “desert.”
- Luke 1:80 tn Grk “until the day of his revealing.”
- Luke 2:1 tn Grk “Now it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- Luke 2:1 sn This decree was a formal decree from the Roman Senate.
- Luke 2:1 tn Or “from the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).
- Luke 2:1 sn Caesar Augustus refers to Octavian, who was Caesar from 27 b.c. to a.d. 14. He was known for his administrative prowess.
- Luke 2:1 tn Grk “to be registered.” The passive infinitive ἀπογράφεσθαι (apographesthai) has been rendered as an active in the translation to improve the English style. The verb is regarded as a technical term for official registration in tax lists (BDAG 108 s.v. ἀπογράφω a).sn This census (a decree…to register all the empire) is one of the more disputed historical remarks in Luke. Josephus (Ant. 18.1.1 [18.1-2]) only mentions a census in a.d. 6, too late for this setting. Such a census would have been a massive undertaking; it could have started under one ruler and emerged under another, to whose name it became attached. This is one possibility to explain the data. Another is that Quirinius, who became governor in Syria for the later census, may have been merely an administrator for this census. See also Luke 2:2.
- Luke 2:1 tn Grk “the whole (inhabited) world,” but this was a way to refer to the Roman empire (L&N 1.83).
- Luke 2:2 tn Or “was a minister of Syria.” This term could simply refer to an administrative role Quirinius held as opposed to being governor (Josephus, Ant. 18.4.2 [18.88]). See also Luke 2:1.
- Luke 2:3 tn Grk “And everyone.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:3 tn Or “hometown” (so CEV).
- Luke 2:4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the consequential nature of the action.
- Luke 2:4 sn On Nazareth see Luke 1:26.
- Luke 2:4 tn Or “town.” The translation “city” is used here because of its collocation with “of David,” suggesting its importance, though not its size.
- Luke 2:4 sn The journey from Nazareth to the city of David called Bethlehem was a journey of about 90 mi (150 km). Bethlehem was a small village located about 7 miles south-southwest of Jerusalem.
- Luke 2:4 sn Luke’s use of the term “house” probably alludes to the original promise made to David outlined in the Nathan oracle of 2 Sam 7:12-16, especially in light of earlier connections between Jesus and David made in Luke 1:32. Further, the mention of Bethlehem reminds one of the promise of Mic 5:2, namely, that a great king would emerge from Bethlehem to rule over God’s people.
- Luke 2:4 tn Or “family,” “lineage.”
- Luke 2:5 tn The words “He went” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied to begin a new sentence in the translation. The Greek sentence is longer and more complex than normal contemporary English usage.
- Luke 2:5 tn Traditionally, “Mary, his betrothed.” Although often rendered in contemporary English as “Mary, who was engaged to him,” this may give the modern reader a wrong impression, since Jewish marriages in this period were typically arranged marriages. The term ἐμνηστευμένῃ (emnēsteumenē) may suggest that the marriage is not yet consummated, not necessarily that they are not currently married. Some mss read “the betrothed to him wife”; others, simply “his wife.” These readings, though probably not autographic, may give the right sense.
- Luke 2:6 tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:6 tn The words “her child” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied to clarify what was being delivered. The wording here is like Luke 1:57. Grk “the days for her to give birth were fulfilled.”
- Luke 2:7 sn The strips of cloth (traditionally, “swaddling cloths”) were strips of linen that would be wrapped around the arms and legs of an infant to keep the limbs protected.
- Luke 2:7 tn Or “a feeding trough.”
- Luke 2:7 tn The Greek word κατάλυμα is flexible, and usage in the LXX and NT refers to a variety of places for lodging (see BDAG 521 s.v.). Most likely Joseph and Mary sought lodging in the public accommodations in the city of Bethlehem (see J. Nolland, Luke [WBC], 1:105), which would have been crude shelters for people and animals. However, it has been suggested by various scholars that Joseph and Mary were staying with relatives in Bethlehem (e.g., C. S. Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament, 194; B. Witherington, “Birth of Jesus,” DJG, 69-70); if that were so the term would refer to the guest room in the relatives’ house, which would have been filled beyond capacity with all the other relatives who had to journey to Bethlehem for the census.sn There was no place for them in the inn. There is no drama in how this is told. There is no search for a variety of places to stay or a heartless innkeeper. (Such items are later, nonbiblical embellishments.) Bethlehem was not large and there was simply no other place to stay. The humble surroundings of the birth are ironic in view of the birth’s significance.
- Luke 2:8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
- Luke 2:8 sn Some argue that shepherds were among the culturally despised, but the evidence for this view of shepherds is late, coming from 5th century Jewish materials. December 25 as the celebrated date of Jesus’ birth arose around the time of Constantine (ca. a.d. 306-337), though it is mentioned in material from Hippolytus (a.d. 165-235). Some think that the reason for celebration on this date was that it coincided with the pagan Roman festival of Saturnalia, and Christians could celebrate their own festival at this time without fear of persecution. On the basis of the statement that the shepherds were living out in the field, keeping guard over their flock at night it is often suggested that Jesus’ birth took place in early spring, since it was only at lambing time that shepherds stood guard over their flocks in the field. This is not absolutely certain, however.
- Luke 2:8 tn Grk “in that region.”
- Luke 2:8 tn Grk “living in the field (see BDAG 15 s.v. ἀγραυλέω) and guarding their flock.”
- Luke 2:9 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:9 tn Or “the angel of the Lord.” See the note on the word “Lord” in 1:11.
- Luke 2:9 tn Or “stood in front of.”
- Luke 2:9 tn Grk “they feared a great fear” (a Semitic idiom which intensifies the main idea, in this case their fear).sn Terrified. See similar responses in Luke 1:12, 29.
- Luke 2:10 tn Grk “behold.”
- Luke 2:10 tn Grk “I evangelize to you great joy.”
- Luke 2:11 sn The Greek word for today (σήμερον, sēmeron) occurs eleven times in the Gospel of Luke (2:11; 4:21; 5:26; 12:28; 13:32-33; 19:5, 9; 22:34, 61; 23:43) and nine times in Acts. Its use, especially in passages such as 2:11; 4:21; 5:26; 19:5, 9, signifies the dawning of the era of messianic salvation and the fulfillment of the plan of God. Not only does it underscore the idea of present fulfillment in Jesus’ ministry, but it also indicates salvific fulfillment present in the church (cf. Acts 1:6; 3:18; D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 1:412; I. H. Marshall, Luke, [NIGTC], 873).
- Luke 2:11 tn Or “town.” See the note on “city” in v. 4.
- Luke 2:11 tn This is another indication of a royal, messianic connection.
- Luke 2:11 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn The term χριστός (christos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.
- Luke 2:12 tn Grk “And this.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:12 sn The sign functions for the shepherds like Elizabeth’s conception served for Mary in 1:36.
- Luke 2:12 tn Or “a feeding trough,” see Luke 2:7.
- Luke 2:13 tn Grk “And suddenly.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:13 tn Grk “a multitude of the armies of heaven.”
- Luke 2:14 sn Glory here refers to giving honor to God.
- Luke 2:14 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos) referring to both males and females.
- Luke 2:14 tc Most witnesses (א2 B2 L Θ Ξ Ψ ƒ1,13 M sy bo) have ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκία (en anthrōpois eudokia, “good will among people”) instead of ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκίας (en anthrōpois eudokias, “among people with whom he is pleased”), a reading attested by א* A B* D W (sa). Most of the Itala witnesses and some other versional witnesses reflect a Greek text which has the genitive εὐδοκίας but drops the preposition ἐν. Not only is the genitive reading better attested, but it is more difficult than the nominative. “The meaning seems to be, not that divine peace can be bestowed only where human good will is already present, but that at the birth of the Saviour God’s peace rests on those whom he has chosen in accord with his good pleasure” (TCGNT 111).
- Luke 2:15 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:15 sn Note how although angels delivered the message, it was the Lord whose message is made known, coming through them.
- Luke 2:16 tn Or “a feeding trough.”
- Luke 2:17 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:17 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
- Luke 2:17 tn Grk “the word which had been spoken to them.”
- Luke 2:18 tn Grk “marveled.” It is a hard word to translate with one term in this context. There is a mixture of amazement and pondering at work in considering the surprising events here. See Luke 1:21, 63; 2:33.
- Luke 2:19 tn The term συμβάλλουσα (sumballousa) suggests more than remembering. She is trying to put things together here (Josephus, Ant. 2.5.3 [2.72]). The words “what they might mean” have been supplied in the translation to make this clear. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
- Luke 2:20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the topic.
- Luke 2:20 sn The mention of glorifying and praising God is the second note of praise in this section; see Luke 2:13-14.
- Luke 2:20 tn Grk “just as [it] had been spoken to them.” This has been simplified in the English translation by making the prepositional phrase (“to them”) the subject of the passive verb.sn The closing remark just as they had been told notes a major theme of Luke 1-2 as he sought to reassure Theophilus: God does what he says he will do.
- Luke 2:21 tn Grk “And when eight days were completed.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:21 sn Jesus’ parents obeyed the angel as Zechariah and Elizabeth had (1:57-66). These events are taking place very much under God’s direction.
- Luke 2:22 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
- Luke 2:22 tc The translation follows most mss, including early and significant ones (א A B L). Some copyists, aware that the purification law applied to women only, produced mss (76 itpt vg [though the Latin word eius could be either masculine or feminine]) that read “her purification.” But the extant evidence for an unambiguous “her” is shut up to one late minuscule (codex 76) and a couple of patristic citations of dubious worth (Pseudo-Athanasius whose date is unknown, and the Catenae in euangelia Lucae et Joannis, edited by J. A. Cramer. The Catenae is a work of collected patristic sayings whose exact source is unknown [thus, it could come from a period covering hundreds of years]). A few other witnesses (D lat) read “his purification.” The KJV has “her purification,” following Beza’s Greek text (essentially a revision of Erasmus’). Erasmus did not have it in any of his five editions. Most likely Beza put in the feminine form αὐτῆς (autēs) because, recognizing that the eius found in several Latin mss could be read either as a masculine or a feminine, he made the contextually more satisfying choice of the feminine. Perhaps it crept into one or two late Greek witnesses via this interpretive Latin back-translation. So the evidence for the feminine singular is virtually nonexistent, while the masculine singular αὐτοῦ (autou, “his”) was a clear scribal blunder. There can be no doubt that “their purification” is the authentic reading.tn Or “when the days of their purification were completed.” In addition to the textual problem concerning the plural pronoun (which apparently includes Joseph in the process) there is also a question whether the term translated “purification” (καθαρισμός, katharismos) refers to the time period prescribed by the Mosaic law or to the offering itself which marked the end of the time period (cf. NLT, “it was time for the purification offering”).sn Exegetically the plural pronoun “their” creates a problem. It was Mary’s purification that was required by law, forty days after the birth (Lev 12:2-4). However, it is possible that Joseph shared in a need to be purified by having to help with the birth or that they also dedicated the child as a first born (Exod 13:2), which would also require a sacrifice that Joseph would bring. Luke’s point is that the parents followed the law. They were pious.
- Luke 2:22 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Joseph and Mary) have been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 2:22 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 2:23 tn Grk “every male that opens the womb” (an idiom for the firstborn male).
- Luke 2:23 sn An allusion to Exod 13:2, 12, 15.
- Luke 2:24 sn The offering of a pair of doves or two young pigeons, instead of a lamb, speaks of the humble roots of Jesus’ family—they apparently could not afford the expense of a lamb.
- Luke 2:24 sn A quotation from Lev 12:8; 5:11 (LXX).
- Luke 2:25 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
- Luke 2:25 tn Grk “This man was righteous.” The Greek text begins a new sentence here, but this was changed to a relative clause in the translation to avoid redundancy.
- Luke 2:25 tn Or “deliverance,” “consolation.”sn The restoration of Israel refers to Simeon’s hope that the Messiah would come and deliver the nation (Isa 40:1; 49:13; 51:3; 57:18; 61:2; 2 Bar. 44:7).
- Luke 2:25 sn Once again, by mentioning the Holy Spirit, Luke stresses the prophetic enablement of a speaker. The Spirit has fallen on both men (Zechariah, 1:67) and women (Elizabeth, 1:41) in Luke 1-2 as they share the will of the Lord.
- Luke 2:26 tn Grk “And it.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:26 tn The use of the passive suggests a revelation by God, and in the OT the corresponding Hebrew term represented here by κεχρηματισμένον (kechrēmatismenon) indicated some form of direct revelation from God (Jer 25:30; 33:2; Job 40:8).
- Luke 2:26 tn Grk “would not see death” (an idiom for dying).
- Luke 2:26 tn On the grammar of this temporal clause, see BDF §§383.3; 395.
- Luke 2:26 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn The revelation to Simeon that he would not die before he had seen the Lord’s Christ is yet another example of a promise fulfilled in Luke 1-2. Also, see the note on Christ in 2:11.
- Luke 2:27 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the consequential nature of the action.
- Luke 2:27 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Simeon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 2:27 tn Grk “So in the Spirit” or “So by the Spirit,” but since it refers to the Spirit’s direction the expanded translation “directed by the Spirit” is used here.
- Luke 2:27 tn Grk “the temple.”sn The temple courts is a reference to the larger temple area, not the holy place. Simeon was either in the court of the Gentiles or the court of women, since Mary was present.
- Luke 2:27 tn Grk “to do for him according to the custom of the law.” See Luke 2:22-24.
- Luke 2:28 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Simeon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 2:28 tn Grk “and said.” The finite verb in Greek has been replaced with a participle in English to improve the smoothness of the translation.
- Luke 2:29 sn The phrase according to your word again emphasizes that God will perform his promise.
- Luke 2:29 tn The Greek word translated here by “Sovereign Lord” is δεσπότης (despotēs).
- Luke 2:29 sn This short prophetic declaration is sometimes called the Nunc dimittis, which comes from the opening phrase of the saying in Latin, “now dismiss,” a fairly literal translation of the Greek verb ἀπολύεις (apolueis, “now release”) in this verse.
- Luke 2:29 tn Here the Greek word δοῦλος (doulos, “slave”) has been translated “servant” since it acts almost as an honorific term for one specially chosen and appointed to carry out the Lord’s tasks.sn Undoubtedly the background for the concept of being the Lord’s slave or servant is to be found in the Old Testament scriptures. For a Jew this concept did not connote drudgery, but honor and privilege. It was used of national Israel at times (Isa 43:10), but was especially associated with famous OT personalities, including such great men as Moses (Josh 14:7), David (Ps 89:3; cf. 2 Sam 7:5, 8) and Elijah (2 Kgs 10:10); all these men were “servants (or slaves) of the Lord.”
- Luke 2:29 tn Grk “now release your servant.”
- Luke 2:30 sn To see Jesus, the Messiah, is to see God’s salvation.
- Luke 2:31 sn Is the phrase all peoples a reference to Israel alone, or to both Israel and the Gentiles? The following verse makes it clear that all peoples includes Gentiles, another key Lukan emphasis (Luke 24:47; Acts 10:34-43).
- Luke 2:32 tn The syntax of this verse is disputed. Most read “light” and “glory” in parallelism, so Jesus is a light for revelation to the Gentiles and is glory to the people for Israel. Others see “light” (1:78-79) as a summary, while “revelation” and “glory” are parallel, so Jesus is light for all, but is revelation for the Gentiles and glory for Israel. Both readings make good sense and either could be correct, but Luke 1:78-79 and Acts 26:22-23 slightly favor this second option.
- Luke 2:32 sn In other words, Jesus is a special cause for praise and honor (“glory”) for the nation.
- Luke 2:33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the consequential nature of the action.
- Luke 2:33 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the child) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 2:33 tc Most mss ([A] Θ [Ψ] ƒ13 33 M it) read “Joseph,” but in favor of the reading ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ (ho patēr autou, “his father”) is both external (א B D L W 1 700 1241 sa) and internal evidence. Internally, the fact that Mary is not named at this point and that “Joseph” is an obviously motivated reading, intended to prevent confusion over the virgin conception of Christ, argues strongly for ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ as the authentic reading here. See also the tc note on “parents” in 2:43.
- Luke 2:33 tn The term refers to the amazement at what was happening as in other places in Luke 1-2 (1:63; 2:18). The participle is plural, while the finite verb used in the periphrastic construction is singular, perhaps to show a unity in the parents’ response (BDF §135.1.d: Luke 8:19).
- Luke 2:34 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 2:34 tn Grk “behold.”
- Luke 2:34 tn Grk “this one”; the referent (the child) is supplied in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 2:34 sn The phrase the falling and rising of many emphasizes that Jesus will bring division in the nation, as some will be judged (falling) and others blessed (rising) because of how they respond to him. The language is like Isa 8:14-15 and conceptually like Isa 28:13-16. Here is the first hint that Jesus’ coming will be accompanied with some difficulties.
- Luke 2:34 tn Grk “and for a sign of contradiction.”
- Luke 2:35 tn Or “reasonings” (in a hostile sense). See G. Schrenk, TDNT 2:97.
- Luke 2:35 sn The remark the thoughts of many hearts will be revealed shows that how people respond to Jesus indicates where their hearts really are before God.
- Luke 2:35 sn A sword refers to a very large, broad two-edged sword. The language is figurative, picturing great pain. Though it refers in part to the cross, it really includes the pain all of Jesus’ ministry will cause, including the next event in Luke 2:41-52 and extending to the opposition he faced throughout his ministry.
- Luke 2:35 sn This remark looks to be parenthetical and addressed to Mary alone, not the nation. Many modern English translations transpose this to make it the final clause in Simeon’s utterance as above to make this clear.
- Luke 2:36 tn Her age is emphasized by the Greek phrase here, “she was very old in her many days.”
- Luke 2:37 tn Grk “living with her husband for seven years from her virginity and she was a widow for eighty four years.” The chronology of the eighty-four years is unclear, since the final phrase could mean “she was widowed until the age of eighty-four” (so BDAG 423 s.v. ἕως 1.b.α). However, the more natural way to take the syntax is as a reference to the length of her widowhood, the subject of the clause, in which case Anna was about 105 years old (so D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 1:251-52; I. H. Marshall, Luke, [NIGTC], 123-24).
- Luke 2:37 sn The statements about Anna worshiping with fasting and prayer night and day make her extreme piety clear.
- Luke 2:38 tn Grk “at that very hour.”
- Luke 2:38 tn Grk “And coming up.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. The participle ἐπιστᾶσα (epistasa) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
- Luke 2:38 tn The imperfect ἐλάλει (elalei) here looks at a process of declaration, not a single moment. She clearly was led by God to address men and women about the hope Jesus was. The testimony of Luke 1–2 to Jesus has involved all types of people.
- Luke 2:38 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the child) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 2:38 tc A few mss (5 16 348 1071 1216) read ᾿Ισραήλ (Israēl, “Israel”) or ἐν τῷ ᾿Ισραήλ (en tō Israēl, “in Israel”), but this reading does not have enough ms support to be considered authentic. More substantial is the reading ἐν ᾿Ιερουσαλήμ (en Ierousalēm, “in Jerusalem”; found in A D L Θ Ψ 0130 ƒ13 33 M), though the preposition was almost surely added to clarify (and perhaps alter) the meaning of the original. The simple ᾿Ιερουσαλήμ, without preposition, is found in א B W Ξ 1 565* lat co.
- Luke 2:39 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the topic.
- Luke 2:39 tn Grk “when they”; the referents (Joseph and Mary) have been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 2:39 tn Or “completed.”
- Luke 2:39 tn Or “city.”
- Luke 2:40 tc Most mss (A Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 33 M) read πνεύματι (pneumati, “in spirit”) after “became strong,” but this looks like an assimilation to Luke 1:80. The better witnesses (א B D L N W lat co) lack the word.
- Luke 2:40 sn With the description grew and became strong, filled with wisdom Luke emphasizes the humanity of Jesus and his growth toward maturity.
- Luke 2:40 tn Or “grace.”
- Luke 2:40 sn On the phrase the favor of God see Luke 1:66.
- Luke 2:41 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
- Luke 2:41 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 2:41 tn On the distributive use of the term κατά (kata), see BDF §305.
- Luke 2:41 sn The custom of Jesus and his family going to Jerusalem every year for the Feast of the Passover shows their piety in obeying the law (Exod 23:14-17).
- Luke 2:42 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:42 sn According to the Mishnah, the age of twelve years old is one year before a boy becomes responsible for his religious commitments (m. Niddah 5.6).
- Luke 2:42 tc Most mss, especially later ones (A Cvid Θ Ψ 0130 ƒ1,13 33 M lat) have εἰς ῾Ιεροσόλυμα (eis hierosoluma, “to Jerusalem”) here, but the ms support for the omission is much stronger (א B D L W 579 1241 co); further, the longer reading clarifies what they went up to and thus looks like a motivated reading.
- Luke 2:43 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated contrastively in keeping with the context. This outcome is different from what had happened all the times before.
- Luke 2:43 tn Grk “when the days ended.”
- Luke 2:43 tn The word “home” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for clarity.
- Luke 2:43 tn Grk “And his.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:43 tc Most mss, especially later ones (A C Ψ 0130 ƒ13 M it), read ᾿Ιωσὴφ καὶ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ (Iōsēph kai hē mētēr autou, “[both] Joseph and his mother”), a reading evidently intended to insulate the doctrine of the virgin conception of our Lord. But א B D L W Θ ƒ1 33 579 1241 lat sa read οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ (hoi goneis autou, “his parents”) as in the translation. Such motivated readings as the former lack credibility, especially since the better witnesses affirm the virgin conception of Christ in Luke 1:34-35.
- Luke 2:44 sn An ancient journey like this would have involved a caravan of people who traveled together as a group for protection and fellowship.
- Luke 2:44 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 2:44 tn Or “and friends.” See L&N 28.30 and 34.17.
- Luke 2:45 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:45 sn The return to Jerusalem would have taken a second day, since they were already one day’s journey away.
- Luke 2:46 tn Grk “And it happened that after.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:46 sn Three days means there was one day out, another day back, and a third day of looking in Jerusalem.
- Luke 2:46 tn Grk “the temple.”
- Luke 2:46 tn This is the only place in Luke’s Gospel where the term διδάσκαλος (didaskalos, “teacher”) is applied to Jews.
- Luke 2:47 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 2:47 sn There was wonder (all who heard…were astonished) that Jesus at such a young age could engage in such a discussion. The fact that this story is told of a preteen hints that Jesus was someone special.
- Luke 2:48 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:48 tn Grk “when they”; the referent (his parents) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 2:48 tn Grk “And his.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 2:48 tn The Greek word here is τέκνον (teknon) rather than υἱός (huios, “son”).
- Luke 2:48 tn Or “Child, why did you do this to us?”
- Luke 2:48 tn Or “your father and I have been terribly worried looking for you.”
- Luke 2:49 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast.
- Luke 2:49 tn Grk “he said to them.”
- Luke 2:49 tn Grk “Why is it that you were looking for me?”
- Luke 2:49 tn Or “I must be about my Father’s business” (so KJV, NKJV); Grk “in the [things] of my Father,” with an ellipsis. This verse involves an idiom that probably refers to the necessity of Jesus being involved in the instruction about God, given what he is doing. The most widely held view today takes this as a reference to the temple as the Father’s house. Jesus is saying that his parents should have known where he was.
- Luke 2:50 tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast.
- Luke 2:50 tn Grk “they”; the referent (his parents) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 2:50 sn This was the first of many times those around Jesus did not understand what he was saying at the time (9:45; 10:21-24; 18:34).
- Luke 2:50 tn Or “the matter.”
- Luke 2:50 tn Grk “which he spoke.”
- Luke 2:51 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 2:51 tn Or “was submitting.”
- Luke 2:51 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast.
- Luke 2:51 tn Or “all these words.”
- Luke 2:51 sn On the phrase his mother kept all these things in her heart compare Luke 2:19.
- Luke 2:52 tn Or “kept increasing.” The imperfect tense suggests something of a progressive force to the verb.