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Paul Travels Through Macedonia and Greece

20 After the disturbance had ended, Paul sent for the disciples, and after encouraging[a] them and saying farewell,[b] he left to go to Macedonia.[c] After he had gone through those regions[d] and spoken many words of encouragement[e] to the believers there,[f] he came to Greece,[g] where he stayed[h] for three months. Because the Jews had made[i] a plot[j] against him as he was intending[k] to sail[l] for Syria, he decided[m] to return through Macedonia.[n] Paul[o] was accompanied by Sopater son of Pyrrhus from Berea,[p] Aristarchus and Secundus from Thessalonica,[q] Gaius[r] from Derbe,[s] and Timothy, as well as Tychicus and Trophimus from the province of Asia.[t] These had gone on ahead[u] and were waiting for us[v] in Troas.[w] We[x] sailed away from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread,[y] and within five days[z] we came to the others[aa] in Troas,[ab] where we stayed for seven days. On the first day[ac] of the week, when we met[ad] to break bread, Paul began to speak[ae] to the people, and because he intended[af] to leave the next day, he extended[ag] his message until midnight. (Now there were many lamps[ah] in the upstairs room where we were meeting.)[ai] A young man named Eutychus, who was sitting in the window,[aj] was sinking[ak] into a deep sleep while Paul continued to speak[al] for a long time. Fast asleep,[am] he fell down from the third story and was picked up dead. 10 But Paul went down,[an] threw himself[ao] on the young man,[ap] put his arms around him,[aq] and said, “Do not be distressed, for he is still alive!”[ar] 11 Then Paul[as] went back upstairs,[at] and after he had broken bread and eaten, he talked with them[au] a long time, until dawn. Then he left. 12 They took the boy home alive and were greatly[av] comforted.

The Voyage to Miletus

13 We went on ahead[aw] to the ship and put out to sea[ax] for Assos,[ay] intending[az] to take Paul aboard there, for he had arranged it this way.[ba] He[bb] himself was intending[bc] to go there by land.[bd] 14 When he met us in Assos,[be] we took him aboard[bf] and went to Mitylene.[bg] 15 We set sail[bh] from there, and on the following day we arrived off Chios.[bi] The next day we approached[bj] Samos,[bk] and the day after that we arrived at Miletus.[bl] 16 For Paul had decided to sail past Ephesus so as not to spend time[bm] in the province of Asia,[bn] for he was hurrying[bo] to arrive in Jerusalem, if possible,[bp] by the day of Pentecost. 17 From Miletus[bq] he sent a message[br] to Ephesus, telling the elders of the church to come to him.[bs]

18 When they arrived, he said to them, “You yourselves know how I lived[bt] the whole time I was with you, from the first day I set foot[bu] in the province of Asia,[bv] 19 serving the Lord with all humility[bw] and with tears, and with the trials that happened to me because of the plots[bx] of the Jews. 20 You know that I did not hold back from proclaiming[by] to you anything that would be helpful,[bz] and from teaching you publicly[ca] and from house to house, 21 testifying[cb] to both Jews and Greeks about repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus.[cc] 22 And now,[cd] compelled[ce] by the Spirit, I am going to Jerusalem[cf] without knowing what will happen to me there,[cg] 23 except[ch] that the Holy Spirit warns[ci] me in town after town[cj] that[ck] imprisonment[cl] and persecutions[cm] are waiting for me. 24 But I do not consider my life[cn] worth anything[co] to myself, so that[cp] I may finish my task[cq] and the ministry that I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify to the good news[cr] of God’s grace.

25 “And now[cs] I know that none[ct] of you among whom I went around proclaiming the kingdom[cu] will see me[cv] again. 26 Therefore I declare[cw] to you today that I am innocent[cx] of the blood of you all.[cy] 27 For I did not hold back from[cz] announcing[da] to you the whole purpose[db] of God. 28 Watch out for[dc] yourselves and for all the flock of which[dd] the Holy Spirit has made you overseers,[de] to shepherd the church of God[df] that he obtained[dg] with the blood of his own Son.[dh] 29 I know that after I am gone[di] fierce wolves[dj] will come in among you, not sparing the flock. 30 Even from among your own group[dk] men[dl] will arise, teaching perversions of the truth[dm] to draw the disciples away after them. 31 Therefore be alert,[dn] remembering that night and day for three years I did not stop warning[do] each one of you with tears. 32 And now I entrust[dp] you to God and to the message[dq] of his grace. This message[dr] is able to build you up and give you an inheritance among all those who are sanctified. 33 I have desired[ds] no one’s silver or gold or clothing. 34 You yourselves know that these hands of mine[dt] provided for my needs and the needs of those who were with me. 35 By all these things,[du] I have shown you that by working in this way we must help[dv] the weak,[dw] and remember the words of the Lord Jesus that he himself said, ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.’”[dx]

36 When[dy] he had said these things, he knelt down[dz] with them all and prayed. 37 They all began to weep loudly,[ea] and hugged[eb] Paul and kissed him,[ec] 38 especially saddened[ed] by what[ee] he had said, that they were not going to see him[ef] again. Then they accompanied[eg] him to the ship.

Footnotes

  1. Acts 20:1 tn Or “exhorting.”
  2. Acts 20:1 tn Or “and taking leave of them.”
  3. Acts 20:1 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.
  4. Acts 20:2 tn BDAG 633 s.v. μέρος 1.b.γ gives the meanings “the parts (of a geographical area), region, district,” but the use of “district” in this context probably implies too much specificity.
  5. Acts 20:2 tn Grk “and encouraging them with many words.” The participle παρακαλέσας (parakalesas, “encouraging”) has been translated by the phrase “spoken…words of encouragement” because the formal equivalent is awkward in contemporary English.
  6. Acts 20:2 tn Grk “[to] them”; the referent (the believers there) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  7. Acts 20:2 tn In popular usage the term translated “Greece” here could also refer to the Roman province officially known as Achaia (BDAG 318 s.v. ῾Ελλάς).
  8. Acts 20:3 tn BDAG 841 s.v. ποιέω 5.c, “w. an acc. of time spend, stay.”
  9. Acts 20:3 tn The participle γενομένης (genomenēs) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. L&N 30.71 has “ἐπιβουλῆς αὐτῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ᾿Ιουδαίων ‘because the Jews had made a plot against him’ Ac 20:3.”
  10. Acts 20:3 sn This plot is one of several noted by Luke (Acts 9:24; 20:19; 23:30).
  11. Acts 20:3 tn BDAG 628 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.γ has “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mindAc 17:31; 20:3, 7, 13ab; 23:15; 26:2; 27:30.”
  12. Acts 20:3 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4 gives “put out to sea” here (as a nautical technical term). However, since the English expression “put out to sea” could be understood to mean Paul was already aboard the ship (which is not clear from the context), the simpler expression “sail” is used at this point in the translation.
  13. Acts 20:3 tn BDAG 199 s.v. γίνομαι 7 has “ἐγένετο γνώμης he decided Ac 20:3.”
  14. Acts 20:3 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.
  15. Acts 20:4 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  16. Acts 20:4 sn Berea (alternate spelling in NRSV Beroea; Greek Beroia) was a very old city in Macedonia on the river Astraeus about 45 mi (75 km) from Thessalonica.
  17. Acts 20:4 tn Grk “of the Thessalonians.”
  18. Acts 20:4 tn Grk “and Gaius,” but this καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
  19. Acts 20:4 sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) southeast of Lystra.
  20. Acts 20:4 tn Grk “the Asians Tychicus and Trophimus.” In the NT “Asia” always refers to the Roman province of Asia. The Roman province of Asia made up about one-third of modern Asia Minor and was on the western side of it. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
  21. Acts 20:5 tn Grk “These, having gone on ahead, were waiting.” The participle προελθόντες (proelthontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  22. Acts 20:5 sn This marks the beginning of one of the “we” sections in Acts (16:10-17; 20:5-15; 21:1-18; 27:1-28:16). These have been traditionally understood to mean that the author was in the company of Paul for this part of the journey.
  23. Acts 20:5 sn Troas was a port city (and surrounding region) on the northwest coast of Asia Minor.
  24. Acts 20:6 sn This marks the beginning of another “we” section in Acts. These have been traditionally understood to mean that Luke was in the company of Paul for this part of the journey.
  25. Acts 20:6 sn The days of Unleavened Bread refer to the week following Passover. It was celebrated for seven days beginning on the fifteenth day of the month Nisan (March-April) after the Passover (Exod 12:1-20; Ezek 45:21-24; Matt 26:17; Luke 22:1).
  26. Acts 20:6 tn BDAG 160 s.v. ἄχρι 1.a.α has “. ἡμερῶν πέντε within five days Ac 20:6.”
  27. Acts 20:6 tn Grk “to them”; the referent (the others mentioned in v. 4) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  28. Acts 20:6 sn Troas was a port city (and surrounding region) on the northwest coast of Asia Minor. From Philippi to Troas was about 125 mi (200 km).
  29. Acts 20:7 sn On the first day. This is the first mention of a Sunday gathering (1 Cor 16:2).
  30. Acts 20:7 tn Or “assembled.”
  31. Acts 20:7 tn The verb διαλέγομαι (dialegomai) is frequently used of Paul addressing Jews in the synagogue. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21. In the context of a Christian gathering, it is preferable to translate διελέγετο (dielegeto) simply as “speak” here. The imperfect verb διελέγετο has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.
  32. Acts 20:7 tn BDAG 628 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.γ has “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mindAc 17:31; 20:3, 7, 13ab; 23:15; 26:2; 27:30.”
  33. Acts 20:7 tn Or “prolonged.”
  34. Acts 20:8 tn More commonly λαμπάς (lampas) means “torch,” but here according to BDAG 585 s.v. λαμπάς 2, “lamp…w. a wick and space for oil.”
  35. Acts 20:8 sn This is best taken as a parenthetical note by the author.
  36. Acts 20:9 tn This window was probably a simple opening in the wall (see also BDAG 462 s.v. θυρίς).
  37. Acts 20:9 tn Grk “sinking into a deep sleep.” BDAG 529 s.v. καταφέρω 3 has “ὕπνῳ βαθεῖ sink into a deep sleepAc 20:9a.” The participle καταφερόμενος (katapheromenos) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  38. Acts 20:9 tn The participle διαλεγομένου (dialegomenou) has been taken temporally.
  39. Acts 20:9 tn BDAG 529 s.v. καταφέρω 3 has “κατενεχθεὶς ἀπὸ τοῦ ὔπνου overwhelmed by sleep vs. 9b, ” but this expression is less common in contemporary English than phrases like “fast asleep” or “sound asleep.”
  40. Acts 20:10 tn Grk “going down.” The participle καταβάς (katabas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  41. Acts 20:10 tn BDAG 377 s.v. ἐπιπίπτω 1.b has “ἐπέπεσεν αὐτῷ he threw himself upon him Ac 20:10.”
  42. Acts 20:10 tn Grk “on him”; the referent (the young man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  43. Acts 20:10 tn BDAG 959 s.v. συμπεριλαμβάνω has “to throw one’s arms around, embrace w. acc. to be supplied Ac 20:10.” However, “embraced the young man” might be taken (out of context) to have erotic implications, while “threw his arms around him” would be somewhat redundant since “threw” has been used in the previous phrase.
  44. Acts 20:10 tn Grk “for his life is in him” (an idiom).
  45. Acts 20:11 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  46. Acts 20:11 tn Grk “going back upstairs.” The participle ἀναβάς (anabas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  47. Acts 20:11 tn Grk “talking with them.” The participle ὁμιλήσας (homilēsas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  48. Acts 20:12 tn Grk “were not to a moderate degree” (an idiom). L&N 78.11 states: “μετρίως: a moderate degree of some activity or state—‘moderately, to a moderate extent.’ ἤγαγον δὲ τὸν παῖδα ζῶντα, καὶ παρεκλήθησαν οὐ μετρίωθς ‘they took the young man home alive and were greatly comforted’ Ac 20:12. In Ac 20:12 the phrase οὐ μετρίως, literally ‘not to a moderate degree,’ is equivalent to a strong positive statement, namely, ‘greatly’ or ‘to a great extent.’”
  49. Acts 20:13 tn Grk “going on ahead.” The participle προελθόντες (proelthontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  50. Acts 20:13 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”
  51. Acts 20:13 sn Assos was a city of Mysia about 24 mi (40 km) southeast of Troas.
  52. Acts 20:13 tn BDAG 628 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.γ has “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mindAc 17:31; 20:3, 7, 13ab; 23:15; 26:2; 27:30.”
  53. Acts 20:13 tn Or “for he told us to do this.” Grk “for having arranged it this way, he.” The participle διατεταγμένος (diatetagmenos) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. BDAG 237 s.v. διατάσσω 1 has “οὕτως διατεταγμένος ἦν he had arranged it so Ac 20:13.” L&N 15.224 has “‘he told us to do this.”
  54. Acts 20:13 tn A new sentence was begun here in the translation because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence; in Greek this is part of the preceding sentence beginning “We went on ahead.”
  55. Acts 20:13 tn BDAG 628 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.γ has “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mindAc 17:31; 20:3, 7, 13ab; 23:15; 26:2; 27:30.”
  56. Acts 20:13 tn Or “there on foot.”
  57. Acts 20:14 sn Assos was a city of Mysia about 24 mi (40 km) southeast of Troas.
  58. Acts 20:14 tn Grk “taking him aboard, we.” The participle ἀναλαβόντες (analabontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  59. Acts 20:14 sn Mitylene was the most important city on the island of Lesbos in the Aegean Sea. It was about 44 mi (70 km) from Assos.
  60. Acts 20:15 tn Grk “setting sail from there.” The participle ἀποπλεύσαντες (apopleusantes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  61. Acts 20:15 tn Or “offshore from Chios.”sn Chios was an island in the Aegean Sea off the western coast of Asia Minor with a city of the same name.
  62. Acts 20:15 tn Or “crossed over to,” “arrived at.” L&N 54.12 has “παραβάλλω: (a technical, nautical term) to sail up to or near—‘to approach, to arrive at, to sail to.’ παρεβάλομεν εἰς Σάμον ‘we approached Samos’ or ‘we arrived at Samos’ Ac 20:15.”
  63. Acts 20:15 sn Samos is an island in the Aegean Sea off the western coast of Asia Minor.
  64. Acts 20:15 sn Miletus was a seaport on the western coast of Asia Minor about 40 mi (70 km) south of Ephesus. From Mitylene to Miletus was about 125 mi (200 km).
  65. Acts 20:16 tn Grk “so that he might not have to spend time.” L&N 67.79 has “ὅπως μὴ γένηται αὐτῷ χρονοτριβῆσαι ἐν τῇ ᾿Ασίᾳ ‘so as not to spend any time in the province of Asia’ Ac 20:16.”
  66. Acts 20:16 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia. The Roman province of Asia made up about one-third of modern Asia Minor and was on the western side of it. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
  67. Acts 20:16 tn Or “was eager.”
  68. Acts 20:16 tn Grk “if it could be to him” (an idiom).
  69. Acts 20:17 sn Miletus was a seaport on the western coast of Asia Minor about 45 mi (72 km) south of Ephesus.
  70. Acts 20:17 tn The words “a message” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
  71. Acts 20:17 tn The words “to him” are not in the Greek text but are implied. L&N 33.311 has for the verb μετακαλέομαι (metakaleomai) “to summon someone, with considerable insistence and authority—‘to summon, to tell to come.’”
  72. Acts 20:18 tn Grk “You yourselves know, from the first day I set foot in Asia, how I was with you the whole time.” This could be understood to mean “how I stayed with you the whole time,” but the following verses make it clear that Paul’s lifestyle while with the Ephesians is in view here. Thus the translation “how I lived the whole time I was with you” makes this clear.
  73. Acts 20:18 tn Or “I arrived.” BDAG 367 s.v. ἐπιβαίνω 2, “set foot in…εἰς τ. ᾿Ασίαν set foot in Asia Ac 20:18.” However, L&N 15.83 removes the idiom: “you know that since the first day that I came to Asia.”
  74. Acts 20:18 tn Grk “Asia”; see the note on this word in v. 16.
  75. Acts 20:19 sn On humility see 2 Cor 10:1; 11:7; 1 Thess 2:6; Col 3:12; Eph 4:2; Phil 2:3-11.
  76. Acts 20:19 sn These plots are mentioned in Acts 9:24; 20:13.
  77. Acts 20:20 tn Or “declaring.”
  78. Acts 20:20 tn Or “profitable.” BDAG 960 s.v. συμφέρω 2.b.α has “τὰ συμφέροντα what advances your best interests or what is good for you Ac 20:20, ” but the broader meaning (s.v. 2, “to be advantageous, help, confer a benefit, be profitable/useful”) is equally possible in this context.
  79. Acts 20:20 tn Or “openly.”
  80. Acts 20:21 tn BDAG 233 s.v. διαμαρτύρομαι 1 has “testify of, bear witness to (orig. under oath)…of repentance to Judeans and Hellenes Ac 20:21.”
  81. Acts 20:21 tc Several mss, including some of the more significant ones (P74 א Α C [D] E 33 36 323 945 1175 1241 1505 1739 pm and a number of versions), read Χριστόν (Christon, “Christ”) at the end of this verse. This word is lacking in B H L P Ψ 614 pm. Although the inclusion is supported by many earlier and better mss, internal evidence is on the side of the omission: In Acts, both “Lord Jesus” and “Lord Jesus Christ” occur, though between 16:31 and the end of the book “Lord Jesus Christ” appears only in 28:31, perhaps as a kind of climactic assertion. Thus, the shorter reading is to be preferred.sn Repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus. Note the twofold description of the message. It is a turning to God involving faith in Jesus Christ.
  82. Acts 20:22 tn Grk “And now, behold.” Here ἰδού (idou) has not been translated.
  83. Acts 20:22 tn Grk “bound.”
  84. Acts 20:22 sn This journey to Jerusalem suggests a parallel between Paul and Jesus, since the “Jerusalem journey” motif figures so prominently in Luke’s Gospel (9:51-19:44).
  85. Acts 20:22 tn BDAG 965 s.v. συναντάω 2 has τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ συναντήσοντα ἐμοὶ μὴ εἰδώς without knowing what will happen to me there Ac 20:22.”
  86. Acts 20:23 tn BDAG 826 s.v. πλήν 1.d has “πλὴν ὅτι except thatAc 20:23.”
  87. Acts 20:23 tn The verb διαμαρτύρομαι (diamarturomai) can mean “warn” (BDAG 233 s.v. διαμαρτύρομαι 2 has “solemnly urge, exhort, warn…w. dat. of pers. addressed”), and this meaning better fits the context here, although BDAG categorizes Acts 20:23 under the meaning “testify of, bear witness to” (s.v. 1).
  88. Acts 20:23 tn The Greek text here reads κατὰ πόλιν (kata polin).
  89. Acts 20:23 tn Grk “saying that,” but the participle λέγον (legon) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
  90. Acts 20:23 tn Grk “bonds.”
  91. Acts 20:23 tn Or “troubles,” “suffering.” See Acts 19:21; 21:4, 11.
  92. Acts 20:24 tn Grk “soul.”
  93. Acts 20:24 tn Or “I do not consider my life worth a single word.” According to BDAG 599 s.v. λόγος 1.a.α, “In the textually uncertain pass. Ac 20:24 the text as it stands in N., οὐδενὸς λόγου (v.l. λόγον) ποιοῦμαι τὴν ψυχὴν τιμίαν, may well mean: I do not consider my life worth a single word (cp. λόγου ἄξιον [ἄξιος 1a] and our ‘worth mention’).”
  94. Acts 20:24 tn BDAG 1106 s.v. ὡς 9 describes this use as “a final particle, expressing intention/purpose, with a view to, in order to.”
  95. Acts 20:24 tn Grk “course.” See L&N 42.26, “(a figurative extension of meaning of δρόμος ‘race’) a task or function involving continuity, serious, effort, and possibly obligation—‘task, mission’…Ac 20:24.” On this Pauline theme see also Phil 1:19-26; Col 1:24; 2 Tim 4:6-7.
  96. Acts 20:24 tn Or “to the gospel.”
  97. Acts 20:25 tn Grk “And now, behold.” Here ἰδού (idou) has not been translated.
  98. Acts 20:25 tn Grk “all of you…will not see.” Greek handles its negation somewhat differently from English, and the translation follows English grammatical conventions.
  99. Acts 20:25 sn Note how Paul’s usage of the expression proclaiming the kingdom is associated with (and intertwined with) his testifying to the good news of God’s grace in v. 24. For Paul the two concepts were interrelated.
  100. Acts 20:25 tn Grk “will see my face” (an idiom for seeing someone in person).
  101. Acts 20:26 tn Or “testify.”
  102. Acts 20:26 tn Grk “clean, pure,” thus “guiltless” (BDAG 489 s.v. καθαρός 3.a).sn I am innocent. Paul had a clear conscience, since he had faithfully carried out his responsibility of announcing to (the Ephesians) the whole purpose of God.
  103. Acts 20:26 tn That is, “that if any of you should be lost, I am not responsible” (an idiom). According to L&N 33.223, the meaning of the phrase “that I am innocent of the blood of all of you” is “that if any of you should be lost, I am not responsible.” However, due to the length of this phrase and its familiarity to many modern English readers, the translation was kept closer to formal equivalence in this case. The word “you” is not in the Greek text, but is implied; Paul is addressing the Ephesian congregation (in the person of its elders) in both v. 25 and 27.
  104. Acts 20:27 tn Or “did not avoid.” BDAG 1041 s.v. ὑποστέλλω 2.b has “shrink from, avoid implying fear…οὐ γὰρ ὑπεστειλάμην τοῦ μὴ ἀναγγεῖλαι I did not shrink from proclaiming Ac 20:27”; L&N 13.160 has “to hold oneself back from doing something, with the implication of some fearful concern—‘to hold back from, to shrink from, to avoid’…‘for I have not held back from announcing to you the whole purpose of God’ Ac 20:27.”
  105. Acts 20:27 tn Or “proclaiming,” “declaring.”
  106. Acts 20:27 tn Or “plan.”
  107. Acts 20:28 tn Or “Be on your guard for” (cf. v. 29). Paul completed his responsibility to the Ephesians with this warning.
  108. Acts 20:28 tn Grk “in which.”
  109. Acts 20:28 tn Or “guardians.” BDAG 379-80 s.v. ἐπίσκοπος 2 states, “The term was taken over in Christian communities in ref. to one who served as overseer or supervisor, with special interest in guarding the apostolic tradition…Ac 20:28.” This functional term describes the role of the elders (see v. 17). They were to guard and shepherd the congregation.
  110. Acts 20:28 tc The reading “of God” (τοῦ θεοῦ, tou theou) is found in א B 614 1175 1505 al vg sy; other witnesses have “of the Lord” (τοῦ κυρίου, tou kuriou) here (so P74 A C* D E Ψ 33 1739 al co), while the majority of the later minuscule mss conflate these two into “of the Lord and God” (τοῦ κυρίου καὶ [τοῦ] θεοῦ, tou kuriou kai [tou] theou). Although the evidence is evenly balanced between the first two readings, τοῦ θεοῦ is decidedly superior on internal grounds. The final prepositional phrase of this verse, διὰ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ ἰδίου (dia tou haimatos tou idiou), could be rendered “through his own blood” or “through the blood of his own.” In the latter translation, the object that “own” modifies must be supplied (see tn below for discussion). But this would not be entirely clear to scribes; those who supposed that ἰδίου modified αἵματος would be prone to alter “God” to “Lord” to avoid the inference that God had blood. In a similar way, later scribes would be prone to conflate the two titles, thereby affirming the deity (with the construction τοῦ κυρίου καὶ θεοῦ following the Granville Sharp rule and referring to a single person [see ExSyn 272, 276-77, 290]) and substitutionary atonement of Christ. For these reasons, τοῦ θεοῦ best explains the rise of the other readings and should be considered authentic.
  111. Acts 20:28 tn Or “acquired.”
  112. Acts 20:28 tn Or “with his own blood”; Grk “with the blood of his own.” The genitive construction could be taken in two ways: (1) as an attributive genitive (second attributive position) meaning “his own blood”; or (2) as a possessive genitive, “with the blood of his own.” In this case the referent is the Son, and the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. See further C. F. DeVine, “The Blood of God,” CBQ 9 (1947): 381-408.sn That he obtained with the blood of his own Son. This is one of only two explicit statements in Luke-Acts highlighting the substitutionary nature of Christ’s death (the other is in Luke 22:19).
  113. Acts 20:29 tn Grk “after my departure.”
  114. Acts 20:29 tn That is, people like fierce wolves. See BDAG 167-68 s.v. βαρύς 4 on the term translated “fierce.”sn The battle to follow would be a savage one. The imagery of wolves is found in intertestamental Judaism (see Pss. Sol. 8:23, 30; also 1 Enoch 89:55). For more on the sheep imagery see H. Preisker and S. Schulz, TDNT 6:690. The imagery of a flock attacked by wolves suggests violence, and serves to prepare Paul’s hearers (the elders of the Ephesian church, v. 17) for the depredations of the false teachers who would arise.
  115. Acts 20:30 tn Grk “from among yourselves.”
  116. Acts 20:30 tn The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anēr), which only rarely is used in a generic sense to refer to both males and females. Since Paul is speaking to the Ephesian elders at this point and there is nothing in the context to suggest women were included in that group (“from among your own group”), it is most likely Paul was not predicting that these false teachers would include women.
  117. Acts 20:30 tn Grk “speaking crooked things”; BDAG 237 s.v. διαστρέφω 2 has “λαλεῖν διεστραμμένα teach perversions (of the truth) Ac 20:30.”sn These perversions of the truth refer to the kinds of threats that would undermine repentance toward God and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ (cf. v. 21). Instead these false teachers would arise from within the Ephesian congregation (cf. 1 John 2:18-19) and would seek to draw the disciples away after them.
  118. Acts 20:31 tn Or “be watchful.”
  119. Acts 20:31 tn Or “admonishing.”
  120. Acts 20:32 tn Or “commend.” BDAG 772 s.v. παρατίθημι 3.b has “τινά τινι entrust someone to the care or protection of someone…Of divine protection παρέθεντο αὐτοὺς τῷ κυρίῳ Ac 14:23; cf. 20:32.”
  121. Acts 20:32 tn Grk “word.”
  122. Acts 20:32 tn Grk “the message of his grace, which.” The phrase τῷ δυναμένῳ οἰκοδομῆσαι… (tō dunamenō oikodomēsai…) refers to τῷ λόγω (tō logō), not τῆς χάριτος (tēs charitos); in English it could refer to either “the message” or “grace,” but in Greek, because of agreement in gender, the referent can only be “the message.” To make this clear, a new sentence was begun in the translation and the referent “the message” was repeated at the beginning of this new sentence.
  123. Acts 20:33 tn Traditionally, “coveted.” BDAG 371 s.v. ἐπιθυμέω 1 has “to have a strong desire to do or secure someth., desire, long for w. gen. of the thing desired…silver, gold, clothing Ac 20:33.” The traditional term “covet” is not in common usage and difficult for many modern English readers to understand. The statement affirms Paul’s integrity. He was not doing this for personal financial gain.
  124. Acts 20:34 tn The words “of mine” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied to clarify whose hands Paul is referring to.
  125. Acts 20:35 sn The expression By all these things means “In everything I did.”
  126. Acts 20:35 tn Or “must assist.”
  127. Acts 20:35 tn Or “the sick.” See Eph 4:28.
  128. Acts 20:35 sn The saying is similar to Matt 10:8. Service and generosity should be abundant. Interestingly, these exact words are not found in the gospels. Paul must have known of this saying from some other source.
  129. Acts 20:36 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
  130. Acts 20:36 tn Grk “kneeling down…he prayed.” The participle θείς (theis) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  131. Acts 20:37 tn Grk “weeping a great deal,” thus “loudly” (BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός and BDAG 546 s.v. κλαυθμός).
  132. Acts 20:37 tn Grk “fell on Paul’s neck” (an idiom, see BDAG 1014 s.v. τράχηλος).
  133. Acts 20:37 sn The Ephesians elders kissed Paul as a sign of both affection and farewell. The entire scene shows how much interrelationship Paul had in his ministry and how much he and the Ephesians meant to each other.
  134. Acts 20:38 tn Or “pained.”
  135. Acts 20:38 tn Grk “by the word that he had said.”
  136. Acts 20:38 tn Grk “to see his face” (an idiom for seeing someone in person).
  137. Acts 20:38 tn BDAG 873 s.v. προπέμπω 1 has “they accompanied him to the ship Ac 20:38.”

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