New English Translation
The Widow’s Offering
21 Jesus[a] looked up[b] and saw the rich putting their gifts into the offering box.[c] 2 He also saw a poor widow put in two small copper coins.[d] 3 He[e] said, “I tell you the truth,[f] this poor widow has put in more than all of them.[g] 4 For they all offered their gifts out of their wealth.[h] But she, out of her poverty, put in everything she had to live on.”[i]
The Signs of the End of the Age
5 Now[j] while some were speaking about the temple, how it was adorned[k] with beautiful stones and offerings,[l] Jesus[m] said, 6 “As for these things that you are gazing at, the days will come when not one stone will be left on another.[n] All will be torn down!”[o] 7 So[p] they asked him,[q] “Teacher, when will these things[r] happen? And what will be the sign that[s] these things are about to take place?” 8 He[t] said, “Watch out[u] that you are not misled. For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am he,’[v] and, ‘The time is near.’ Do not follow them! 9 And when you hear of wars and rebellions,[w] do not be afraid.[x] For these things must happen first, but the end will not come at once.”[y]
Persecution of Disciples
10 Then he said to them, “Nation will rise up in arms[z] against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. 11 There will be great earthquakes, and famines[aa] and plagues in various places, and there will be terrifying sights[ab] and great signs[ac] from heaven. 12 But before all this,[ad] they will seize[ae] you and persecute you, handing you over to the synagogues[af] and prisons. You[ag] will be brought before kings and governors because of my name. 13 This will be a time for you to serve as witnesses.[ah] 14 Therefore be resolved[ai] not to rehearse[aj] ahead of time how to make your defense. 15 For I will give you the words[ak] along with the wisdom[al] that none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict. 16 You will be betrayed even by parents,[am] brothers, relatives,[an] and friends, and they will have some of you put to death. 17 You will be hated by everyone because of my name.[ao] 18 Yet[ap] not a hair of your head will perish.[aq] 19 By your endurance[ar] you will gain[as] your lives.[at]
The Desolation of Jerusalem
20 “But when you see Jerusalem surrounded[au] by armies, then know that its[av] desolation[aw] has come near. 21 Then those who are in Judea must flee[ax] to the mountains. Those[ay] who are inside the city must depart. Those[az] who are out in the country must not enter it, 22 because these are days of vengeance,[ba] to fulfill[bb] all that is written. 23 Woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing their babies in those days! For there will be great distress[bc] on the earth and wrath against this people. 24 They[bd] will fall by the edge[be] of the sword and be led away as captives[bf] among all nations. Jerusalem[bg] will be trampled down by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.[bh]
The Arrival of the Son of Man
25 “And there will be signs in the sun and moon and stars,[bi] and on the earth nations will be in distress,[bj] anxious[bk] over the roaring of the sea and the surging waves. 26 People will be fainting from fear[bl] and from the expectation of what is coming on the world, for the powers of the heavens will be shaken.[bm] 27 Then[bn] they will see the Son of Man arriving in a cloud[bo] with power and great glory. 28 But when these things[bp] begin to happen, stand up and raise your heads, because your redemption[bq] is drawing near.”
The Parable of the Fig Tree
29 Then[br] he told them a parable: “Look at the fig tree and all the other trees.[bs] 30 When they sprout leaves, you see[bt] for yourselves and know that summer is now near. 31 So also you, when you see these things happening, know[bu] that the kingdom of God[bv] is near. 32 I tell you the truth,[bw] this generation[bx] will not pass away until all these things take place. 33 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away.[by]
34 “But be on your guard[bz] so that your hearts are not weighed down with dissipation and drunkenness and the worries of this life, and that day close down upon you suddenly like a trap.[ca] 35 For[cb] it will overtake[cc] all who live on the face of the whole earth.[cd] 36 But stay alert at all times,[ce] praying that you may have strength to escape all these things that must[cf] happen, and to stand before the Son of Man.”
37 So[cg] every day Jesus[ch] was teaching in the temple courts,[ci] but at night he went and stayed[cj] on the Mount of Olives.[ck] 38 And all the people[cl] came to him early in the morning to listen to him in the temple courts.[cm]
- Luke 21:1 tn Grk “He”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Luke 21:1 tn Grk “looking up, he saw.” The participle ἀναβλέψας (anablepsas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
- Luke 21:1 tn On the term γαζοφυλάκιον (gazophulakion), often translated “treasury,” see BDAG 186 s.v., which states, “For Mk 12:41, 43; Lk 21:1 the mng. contribution box or receptacle is attractive. Acc. to Mishnah, Shekalim 6, 5 there were in the temple 13 such receptacles in the form of trumpets. But even in these passages the general sense of ‘treasury’ is prob., for the contributions would go [into] the treasury via the receptacles.” Based upon the extra-biblical evidence (see sn following), however, the translation opts to refer to the actual receptacles and not the treasury itself.sn The offering box probably refers to the receptacles in the temple forecourt by the Court of Women used to collect freewill offerings. These are mentioned by Josephus, J. W. 5.5.2 (5.200), 6.5.2 (6.282); Ant. 19.6.1 (19.294); and in 1 Macc 14:49 and 2 Macc 3:6, 24, 28, 40 (see also Mark 12:41; John 8:20).
- Luke 21:2 sn These two small copper coins were lepta (sing. “lepton”), the smallest and least valuable coins in circulation in Palestine, worth one-half of a quadrans or 1/128 of a denarius, or about six minutes of an average daily wage. This was next to nothing in value.
- Luke 21:3 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 21:3 tn Grk “Truly, I say to you.”
- Luke 21:3 sn Has put in more than all of them. With God, giving is weighed evaluatively, not counted. The widow was praised because she gave sincerely and at some considerable cost to herself.
- Luke 21:4 tn Grk “out of what abounded to them.”
- Luke 21:4 tn Or “put in her entire livelihood.”
- Luke 21:5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
- Luke 21:5 sn The Jerusalem temple was widely admired around the world. See Josephus, Ant. 15.11 (15.380-425); J. W. 5.5 (5.184-227) and Tacitus, History 5.8, who called it “immensely opulent.” Josephus compared it to a beautiful snowcapped mountain.
- Luke 21:5 tn For the translation of ἀνάθημα (anathēma) as “offering” see L&N 53.18.
- Luke 21:5 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 21:6 sn With the statement days will come when not one stone will be left on another Jesus predicted the total destruction of the temple, something that did occur in a.d. 70.
- Luke 21:6 tn Grk “the days will come when not one stone will be left on another that will not be thrown down.”
- Luke 21:7 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments about the temple’s future destruction.
- Luke 21:7 tn Grk “asked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
- Luke 21:7 sn Both references to these things are plural, so more than the temple’s destruction is in view. The question may presuppose that such a catastrophe signals the end.
- Luke 21:7 tn Grk “when.”
- Luke 21:8 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Luke 21:8 tn Or “Be on guard.”
- Luke 21:8 tn That is, “I am the Messiah.”
- Luke 21:9 tn Social and political chaos also precedes the end. This term refers to revolutions (L&N 39.34).
- Luke 21:9 tn This is not the usual term for fear, but refers to a deep sense of terror and emotional distress (Luke 24:37; BDAG 895 s.v. πτοέω).
- Luke 21:9 sn The end will not come at once. This remark about timing not only indicates that there will be events before the end, but that some time will also pass before it comes.
- Luke 21:10 tn For the translation “rise up in arms” see L&N 55.2.
- Luke 21:11 sn See Isa 5:13-14; 13:6-16; Hag 2:6-7; Zech 14:4.
- Luke 21:11 tn This term, φόβητρον (phobētron), occurs only here in the NT. It could refer to an object, event, or condition that causes fear, but in the context it is linked with great signs from heaven, so the translation “sights” was preferred.
- Luke 21:11 sn See Jer 4:13-22; 14:12; 21:6-7.
- Luke 21:12 sn But before all this. Another note of timing is present, this one especially important in understanding the sequence in the discourse. Before the things noted in vv. 8-11 are the events of vv. 12-19.
- Luke 21:12 tn Grk “will lay their hands on you.”
- Luke 21:12 sn Some of the persecution is of Jewish origin (the synagogues). Some fulfillment of this can be seen in Acts. See the note on synagogues in 4:15.
- Luke 21:12 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
- Luke 21:13 tn Grk “This will turn out to you for [a] testimony.”
- Luke 21:14 tn Grk “determine in your hearts.”
- Luke 21:14 tn This term could refer to rehearsing a speech or a dance. On its syntax, see BDF §392.2.
- Luke 21:15 tn Grk “a mouth.” It is a metonymy and refers to the reply the Lord will give to them.
- Luke 21:15 tn Grk “and wisdom.”
- Luke 21:16 sn To confess Christ might well mean rejection by one’s own family, even by parents.
- Luke 21:16 tn Grk “and brothers and relatives,” but καί (kai) has not been translated twice here since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
- Luke 21:17 sn See Luke 6:22, 27; 1 Cor 1:25-31.
- Luke 21:18 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
- Luke 21:18 sn Given v. 16, the expression not a hair of your head will perish must be taken figuratively and refer to living ultimately in the presence of God.
- Luke 21:19 sn By your endurance is a call to remain faithful, because trusting in Jesus is the means to life.
- Luke 21:19 tc Some significant Greek witnesses plus the majority of mss (א D L W Ψ ƒ1 M) read the aorist imperative κτήσασθε (ktēsasthe) here, though some mss (A B Θ ƒ13 33 lat sa) read the future indicative κτήσεσθε (ktēsesthe). A decision is difficult because the evidence is so evenly balanced, but the aorist imperative is the harder reading and better explains the rise of the other. J. A. Fitzmyer assesses the translation options this way: “In English one has to use something similar [i.e., a future indicative], even if one follows the [aorist imperative]” (Luke [AB], 2:1341); in the same vein, although this translation follows the aorist imperative, because of English requirements it has been translated as though it were a future indicative.
- Luke 21:19 tn Grk “your souls,” but ψυχή (psuchē) is frequently used of one’s physical life. In light of v. 16 that does not seem to be the case here. The entire phrase could be taken as an idiom meaning “you will save yourselves” (L&N 21.20), or (as in v. 18) this could refer to living ultimately in the presence of God.
- Luke 21:20 sn See Luke 19:41-44. This passage refers to the events associated with the fall of Jerusalem, when the city is surrounded by armies.
- Luke 21:20 tn Grk “her,” referring to the city of Jerusalem (the name “Jerusalem” in Greek is a feminine noun).
- Luke 21:20 sn The phrase its desolation is a reference to the fall of the city, which is the only antecedent present in Luke’s account. The parallels to this in Matt 24:15 and Mark 13:14 refer to the temple’s desolation, though Matthew’s allusion is clearer. They focus on the parallel events of the end, not on the short term realization in a.d. 70. The entire passage has a prophetic “two events in one” typology, where the near term destruction (a.d. 70) is like the end. So the evangelists could choose to focus on the near time realization (Luke) or on its long term fulfillment, which mirrors it (Matthew, Mark).
- Luke 21:21 sn Fleeing to the mountains is a key OT image: Gen 19:17; Judg 6:2; Isa 15:5; Jer 16:16; Zech 14:5.
- Luke 21:21 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 21:21 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 21:22 tn Or “of punishment.” This is a time of judgment.
- Luke 21:22 tn The passive construction with the infinitive πλησθῆναι (plēsthēnai) has been translated as an active construction for simplicity, in keeping with contemporary English style.
- Luke 21:23 sn Great distress means that this is a period of great judgment.
- Luke 21:24 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 21:24 tn Grk “by the mouth of the sword” (an idiom for the edge of a sword).
- Luke 21:24 sn Here is the predicted judgment against the nation until the time of Gentile rule has passed: Its people will be led away as captives.
- Luke 21:24 tn Grk “And Jerusalem.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 21:24 sn Until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled implies a time when Israel again has a central role in God’s plan.
- Luke 21:25 sn Signs in the sun and moon and stars are cosmic signs that turn our attention to the end and the Son of Man’s return for the righteous. OT imagery is present: See Isa 13:9-10; 24:18-20; 34:4; Ezek 32:7-8; Joel 2:1, 30-31; 3:15.
- Luke 21:25 tn Grk “distress of nations.”
- Luke 21:25 tn Or “in consternation” (L&N 32.9).
- Luke 21:26 tn According to L&N 23.184 this could be mainly a psychological experience rather than actual loss of consciousness. It could also refer to complete discouragement because of fear, leading people to give up hope (L&N 25.293).
- Luke 21:26 sn An allusion to Isa 34:4. The heavens were seen as the abode of heavenly forces, so their shaking indicates distress in the spiritual realm. Although some take the powers as a reference to bodies in the heavens (like stars and planets, “the heavenly bodies,” NIV) this is not as likely.
- Luke 21:27 tn Grk “And then” (καὶ τότε, kai tote). Here καί has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 21:27 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13. Here is Jesus returning with full judging authority.
- Luke 21:28 sn These things are all the events of vv. 8-27. Disciples represent the righteous here. The events surrounding the fall of the nation are a down payment on a fuller judgment to come on all humanity. The presence of one guarantees the other.
- Luke 21:28 sn With Jesus’ return comes the manifestation of judgment and final salvation (redemption).
- Luke 21:29 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 21:29 tn Grk “all the trees.”
- Luke 21:30 tn Grk “seeing for yourselves, you know.” The participle βλέποντες (blepontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
- Luke 21:31 tn The verb γινώσκετε (ginōskete, “know”) can be parsed as either present indicative or present imperative. In this context the imperative fits better, since the movement is from analogy (trees and seasons) to the future (the signs of the coming of the kingdom) and since the emphasis is on preparation for this event.
- Luke 21:31 sn The kingdom of God refers here to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37.
- Luke 21:32 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
- Luke 21:32 sn This is one of the hardest verses in the gospels to interpret. Various views exist for what generation means. (1) Some take it as meaning “race” and thus as an assurance that the Jewish race (nation) will not pass away. But it is very questionable that the Greek term γενεά (genea) can have this meaning. Two other options are possible. (2) Generation might mean “this type of generation” and refer to the generation of wicked humanity. Then the point is that humanity will not perish, because God will redeem it. Or (3) generation may refer to “the generation that sees the signs of the end” (vv. 25-26), who will also see the end itself. In other words, once the movement to the return of Christ starts, all the events connected with it happen very quickly, in rapid succession.
- Luke 21:33 sn The words that Jesus predicts here will never pass away. They are more stable and lasting than creation itself. For this kind of image, see Isa 40:8; 55:10-11.
- Luke 21:34 tn Grk “watch out for yourselves.”sn Disciples are to watch out. If they are too absorbed into everyday life, they will stop watching and living faithfully.
- Luke 21:34 sn Or like a thief, see Luke 12:39-40. The metaphor of a trap is a vivid one. Most modern English translations traditionally place the words “like a trap” at the end of v. 34, completing the metaphor. In the Greek text (and in the NRSV and REB) the words “like a trap” are placed at the beginning of v. 35. This does not affect the meaning.
- Luke 21:35 tn There is debate in the textual tradition about the position of γάρ (gar) and whether v. 35 looks back to v. 34 or is independent. The textual evidence does slightly favor placing γάρ after the verb and thus linking it back to v. 34. The other reading looks like Isa 24:17. However, the construction is harsh and the translation prefers for stylistic reasons to start a new English sentence here.
- Luke 21:35 tn Or “come upon.”
- Luke 21:35 sn This judgment involves everyone: all who live on the face of the whole earth. No one will escape this evaluation.
- Luke 21:36 sn The call to be alert at all times is a call to remain faithful in looking for the Lord’s return.
- Luke 21:36 tn For the translation of μέλλω (mellō) as “must,” see L&N 71.36.
- Luke 21:37 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” since vv. 37-38 serve as something of a summary or transition from the discourse preceding to the passion narrative that follows.
- Luke 21:37 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 21:37 tn Grk “in the temple.”
- Luke 21:37 tn Grk “and spent the night,” but this is redundant because of the previous use of the word “night.”
- Luke 21:37 tn Grk “at the mountain called ‘of Olives.’” sn See the note on the phrase Mount of Olives in 19:29.
- Luke 21:38 sn Jesus’ teaching was still quite popular with all the people at this point despite the leaders’ opposition.
- Luke 21:38 tc Some mss (those of ƒ13) place John 7:53-8:11 here after v. 38, no doubt because it was felt that this was a better setting for the pericope.tn Grk “in the temple.”