New English Translation
The Brevity of Life
14 “Man, born of woman,[a]
lives but a few days,[b] and they are full of trouble.[c]
2 He grows up[d] like a flower and then withers away;[e]
he flees like a shadow, and does not remain.[f]
3 Do you fix your eye[g] on such a one?[h]
And do you bring me[i] before you for judgment?
4 Who can make[j] a clean thing come from an unclean?[k]
5 Since man’s days[l] are determined,[m]
the number of his months is under your control;[n]
you have set his limit[o] and he cannot pass it.
6 Look away from him and let him desist,[p]
until he fulfills[q] his time like a hired man.
The Inevitability of Death
7 “But there is hope for[r] a tree:[s]
If it is cut down, it will sprout again,
and its new shoots will not fail.
8 Although its roots may grow old[t] in the ground
and its stump begins to die[u] in the soil,[v]
9 at the scent[w] of water it will flourish[x]
and put forth[y] shoots like a new plant.
10 But man[z] dies and is powerless;[aa]
he expires—and where is he?[ab]
11 As[ac] water disappears from the sea,[ad]
or a river drains away and dries up,
12 so man lies down and does not rise;
until the heavens are no more,[ae]
they[af] will not awake
nor arise from their sleep.
The Possibility of Another Life
13 “O that[ag] you would hide me in Sheol,[ah]
and conceal me till your anger has passed![ai]
O that you would set me a time[aj]
and then remember me![ak]
14 If a man dies, will he live again?[al]
All the days of my hard service[am] I will wait[an]
until my release comes.[ao]
15 You will call[ap] and I[aq]—I will answer you;
you will long for[ar] the creature you have made.[as]
The Present Condition[at]
16 “Surely now you count my steps;[au]
then you would not mark[av] my sin.[aw]
17 My offenses would be sealed up[ax] in a bag;[ay]
you would cover over[az] my sin.
18 But as[ba] a mountain falls away and crumbles,[bb]
and as a rock will be removed from its place,
19 as water wears away stones,
and torrents[bc] wash away the soil,[bd]
so you destroy man’s hope.[be]
20 You overpower him once for all,[bf]
and he departs;
you change[bg] his appearance
and send him away.
21 If[bh] his sons are honored,[bi]
he does not know it;[bj]
if they are brought low,
he does not see[bk] it.
22 His flesh only has pain for him,[bl]
and he mourns for himself.”[bm]
- Job 14:1 tn The first of the threefold apposition for אָדָם (ʾadam, “man”) is “born of a woman.” The genitive (“woman”) after a passive participle denotes the agent of the action (see GKC 359 §116.l).
- Job 14:1 tn The second description is simply “[is] short of days.” The meaning here is that his life is short (“days” being put as the understatement for “years”).
- Job 14:1 tn The third expression is “consumed/full/sated—with/of—trouble/restlessness.” The latter word, רֹגֶז (rogez), occurred in Job 3:17; see also the idea in 10:15.
- Job 14:2 tn Heb יָצָא (yatsaʾ, “comes forth”). The perfect verb expresses characteristic action and so is translated by the present tense (see GKC 329 §111.s).
- Job 14:2 tn The verb וַיִּמָּל (vayyimmal) is from the root מָלַל (malal, “to languish; to wither”) and not from a different root מָלַל (malal, “to cut off”).
- Job 14:2 tn The verb is “and he does not stand.” Here the verb means “to stay fixed; to abide.” The shadow does not stay fixed, but continues to advance toward darkness.
- Job 14:3 tn Heb “open the eye on,” an idiom meaning to prepare to judge someone.
- Job 14:3 tn The verse opens with אַף־עַל־זֶה (ʾaf ʿal zeh), meaning “even on such a one!” It is an exclamation of surprise.
- Job 14:3 tn The text clearly has “me” as the accusative, but many wish to emend it to say “him” (אֹתוֹ, ʾoto). But D. J. A. Clines rightly rejects this in view of the way Job is written, often moving back and forth between his own tragedy and others’ tragedies (Job [WBC], 283).
- Job 14:4 tn The expression is מִי־יִתֵּן (mi yitten, “who will give”; see GKC 477 §151.b). Some commentators (H. H. Rowley and A. B. Davidson) wish to take this as the optative formula: “O that a clean might come out of an unclean!” But that does not fit the verse very well, and still requires the addition of a verb. The exclamation here simply implies something impossible—man is unable to attain purity.
- Job 14:4 sn The point being made is that the entire human race is contaminated by sin, and therefore cannot produce something pure. In this context, since man is born of woman, it is saying that the woman and the man who is brought forth from her are impure. See Ps 51:5; Isa 6:5; Gen 6:5.
- Job 14:5 tn Heb “his days.”
- Job 14:5 tn The passive participle is from חָרַץ (kharats), which means “determined.” The word literally means “cut” (Lev 22:22, “mutilated”). E. Dhorme, (Job, 197) takes it to mean “engraved” as on stone; from a custom of inscribing decrees on tablets of stone he derives the meaning here of “decreed.” This, he argues, is parallel to the way חָקַק (khaqaq, “engrave”) is used. The word חֹק (khoq) is an “ordinance” or “statute”; the idea is connected to the verb “to engrave.” The LXX has “if his life should be but one day on the earth, and his months are numbered by him, you have appointed him for a time and he shall by no means exceed it.”
- Job 14:5 tn Heb “[is] with you.” This clearly means under God’s control.
- Job 14:5 tn The word חֹק (khoq) has the meanings of “decree, decision, and limit” (cf. Job 28:26; 38:10).sn Job is saying that God foreordains the number of the days of man. He foreknows the number of the months. He fixes the limit of human life which cannot be passed.
- Job 14:6 tn The verb חָדַל (khadal) means “to desist; to cease.” The verb would mean here “and let him desist,” which some take to mean “and let him rest.” But since this is rather difficult in the line, commentators have suggested other meanings. Several emend the text slightly to make it an imperative rather than an imperfect; this is then translated “and desist.” The expression “from him” must be added. Another suggestion that is far-fetched is that of P. J. Calderone (“CHDL-II in poetic texts,” CBQ 23 : 451-60) and D. W. Thomas (VTSup 4 : 8-16), having a new meaning of “be fat.”
- Job 14:6 tn There are two roots רָצַה (ratsah). The first is the common word, meaning “to delight in; to have pleasure in.” The second, most likely used here, means “to pay; to acquit a debt” (cf. Lev 26:34, 41, 43). Here with the mention of the simile with the hired man, the completing of the job is in view.
- Job 14:7 tn The genitive after the construct is one of advantage—it is hope for the tree.
- Job 14:7 sn The figure now changes to a tree for the discussion of the finality of death. At least the tree will sprout again when it is cut down. Why, Job wonders, should what has been granted to the tree not also be granted to humans?
- Job 14:8 tn The Hiphil of זָקַן (zaqan, “to be old”) is here an internal causative, “to grow old.”
- Job 14:8 tn The Hiphil is here classified as an inchoative Hiphil (see GKC 145 §53.e), for the tree only begins to die. In other words, it appears to be dead, but actually is not completely dead.
- Job 14:8 tn The LXX translates “dust” [soil] with “rock,” probably in light of the earlier illustration of the tree growing in the rocks.sn Job is thinking here of a tree that dies or decays because of a drought rather than being uprooted, because the next verse will tell how it can revive with water.
- Job 14:9 tn The personification adds to the comparison with people—the tree is credited with the sense of smell to detect the water.
- Job 14:9 tn The sense of “flourish” for this verb is found in Ps 92:12, 13 [13, 14 HT], and Prov 14:11. It makes an appropriate parallel with “bring forth boughs” in the second half.
- Job 14:9 tn Heb “and will make.”
- Job 14:10 tn There are two words for “man” in this verse. The first (גֶּבֶר, gever) can indicate a “strong” or “mature man” or “mighty man,” the hero; and the second (אָדָם, ʾadam) simply designates the person as mortal.
- Job 14:10 tn The word חָלַשׁ (khalash) in Aramaic and Syriac means “to be weak” (interestingly, the Syriac OT translated חָלַשׁ [khalash] with “fade away” here). The derived noun “the weak” would be in direct contrast to “the mighty man.” In the transitive sense the verb means “to weaken; to defeat” (Exod 17:13); here it may have the sense of “be lifeless, unconscious, inanimate” (cf. E. Dhorme, Job, 199). Many commentators emend the text to יַחֲלֹף (yakhalof, “passes on; passes away”). A. Guillaume tries to argue that the form is a variant of the other, the letters שׁ (shin) and פ (pe) being interchangeable (“The Use of halas in Exod 17:13, Isa 14:12, and Job 14:10, ” JTS 14 : 91-92). G. R. Driver connected it to Arabic halasa, “carry off suddenly” (“The Resurrection of Marine and Terrestrial Creatures,” JSS 7 : 12-22). But the basic idea of “be weak, powerless” is satisfactory in the text. H. H. Rowley (Job [NCBC], 105) says, “Where words are so carefully chosen, it is gratuitous to substitute less expressive words as some editors do.”
- Job 14:10 tn This break to a question adds a startling touch to the whole verse. The obvious meaning is that he is gone. The LXX weakens it: “and is no more.”
- Job 14:11 tn The comparative clause may be signaled simply by the context, especially when facts of a moral nature are compared with the physical world (see GKC 499 §161.a).
- Job 14:11 tn The Hebrew word יָם (yam) can mean “sea” or “lake.”
- Job 14:12 tc The Hebrew construction is “until not,” which is unusual if not impossible; it is found in only one other type of context. In its six other occurrences (Num 21:35; Deut 3:3; Josh 8:22; 10:33; 11:8; 2 Kgs 10:11) the context refers to the absence of survivors. Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, Syriac, and Vulgate all have “till the heavens wear out.” Most would emend the text just slightly from עַד־בִּלְתִּי (ʿad bilti, “are no more”) to עַד בְּלוֹת (ʿad belot, “until the wearing out of,” see Ps 102:26 ; Isa 51:6). Gray rejects emendation here, finding the unusual form of the MT in its favor. Orlinsky (p. 57) finds a cognate Arabic word meaning “will not awake” and translates it “so long as the heavens are not rent asunder” (H. M. Orlinsky, “The Hebrew and Greek Texts of Job 14:12, ” JQR 28 [1937/38]: 57-68). He then deletes the last line of the verse as a later gloss.
- Job 14:12 tn The verb is plural because the subject, אִישׁ (ʾish), is viewed as a collective: “mankind.” The verb means “to wake up; to awake”; another root, קוּץ (quts, “to split open”) cognate to Arabic qada and Akkadian kasu, was put forward by H. M. Orlinsky (“The Hebrew and Greek Texts of Job 14:12, ” JQR 28 [1937-38]: 57-68) and G. R. Driver (“Problems in the Hebrew Text of Job,” VTSup 3 : 72-93).
- Job 14:13 tn The optative mood is introduced here again with מִי יִתֵּן (mi yitten), literally, “who will give?” sn After arguing that man will die without hope, Job expresses his desire that there be a resurrection, and what that would mean. The ancients all knew that death did not bring existence to an end; rather, they passed into another place, but they continued to exist. Job thinks that death would at least give him some respite from the wrath of God, but this wrath would eventually be appeased, and then God would remember the one he had hidden in Sheol just as he remembered Noah. Once that happened, it would be possible that Job might live again.
- Job 14:13 sn Sheol in the Bible refers to the place where the dead go. But it can have different categories of meaning: death in general, the grave, or the realm of the departed spirits [hell]. A. Heidel shows that in the Bible when hell is in view the righteous are not there—it is the realm of the departed spirits of the wicked. When the righteous go to Sheol, the meaning is usually the grave or death. See chapter 3 in A. Heidel, The Gilgamesh Epic and the Old Testament Parallels.
- Job 14:13 tn The construction used here is the preposition followed by the infinitive construct followed by the subjective genitive, forming an adverbial clause of time.
- Job 14:13 tn This is the same word used in v. 5 for “limit.”
- Job 14:13 tn The verb זָכַר (zakhar) means more than simply “to remember.” In many cases, including this one, it means “to act on what is remembered,” i.e., deliver or rescue (see Gen 8:1, “and God remembered Noah”). In this sense, a prayer “remember me” is a prayer for God to act upon his covenant promises.
- Job 14:14 tc The LXX removes the interrogative and makes the statement affirmative, i.e., that man will live again. This reading is taken by D. H. Gard (“The Concept of the Future Life according to the Greek Translator of the Book of Job,” JBL 73 : 137-38). D. J. A. Clines follows this, putting both of the expressions in the wish clause: “if a man dies and could live again…” (Job [WBC], 332). If that is the way it is translated, then the verbs in the second half of the verse and in the next verse would all be part of the apodosis, and should be translated “would.” The interpretation would not greatly differ; it would be saying that if there was life after death, Job would long for his release—his death. If the traditional view is taken and the question was raised whether there was life after death (the implication of the question being that there is), then Job would still be longing for his death. The point the line is making is that if there is life after death, that would be all the more reason for Job to eagerly expect, to hope for, his death.
- Job 14:14 tn See Job 7:1.
- Job 14:14 tn The verb אֲיַחֵל (ʾayakhel) may be rendered “I will/would wait” or “I will/would hope.” The word describes eager expectation and longing hope.
- Job 14:14 tn The construction is the same as that found in the last verse: a temporal preposition עַד (ʿad) followed by the infinitive construct followed by the subjective genitive “release/relief.” Due, in part, to the same verb (חָלַף, khalaf) having the meaning “sprout again” in v. 7, some take “renewal” as the meaning here (J. E. Hartley, Alden, NIV, ESV).
- Job 14:15 sn The idea would be that God would sometime in the future call Job into his fellowship again when he longed for the work of his hands (cf. Job 10:3).
- Job 14:15 tn The independent personal pronoun is emphatic, as if to say, “and I on my part will answer.”
- Job 14:15 tn The word כָּסַף (kasaf) originally meant “to turn pale.” It expresses the sentiment that causes pallor of face, and so is used for desire ardently, covet. The object of the desire is always introduced with the ל (lamed) preposition (see E. Dhorme, Job, 202).
- Job 14:15 tn Heb “long for the work of your hands.”
- Job 14:16 sn The hope for life after death is supported now by a description of the severity with which God deals with people in this life.
- Job 14:16 tn If v. 16a continues the previous series, the translation here would be “then” (as in RSV). Others take it as a new beginning to express God’s present watch over Job, and interpret the second half of the verse as a question, or emend it to say God does not pass over his sins.
- Job 14:16 sn Cf. Ps 130:3-4, which says, “If you should mark iniquity O Lord, Lord, who could stand? But with you there is forgiveness, in order that you might be feared.”
- Job 14:16 tn The second colon of the verse can be contrasted with the first, the first being the present reality and the second the hope looked for in the future. This seems to fit the context well without making any changes at all.
- Job 14:17 tn The passive participle חָתֻם (khatum), from חָתַם (khatam, “seal”), which is used frequently in the Bible, means “sealed up.” The image of sealing sins in a bag is another of the many poetic ways of expressing the removal of sin from the individual (see 1 Sam 25:29). Since the term most frequently describes sealed documents, the idea here may be more that of sealing in a bag the record of Job’s sins (see D. J. A. Clines, Job [WBC], 334).
- Job 14:17 tn The idea has been presented that the background of putting tally stones in a bag is intended (see A. L. Oppenheim, “On an Operational Device in Mesopotamian Bureaucracy,” JNES 18 : 121-28).
- Job 14:17 tn This verb was used in Job 13:4 for “plasterers of lies.” The idea is probably that God coats or paints over the sins so that they are forgotten (see Isa 1:18). A. B. Davidson (Job, 105) suggests that the sins are preserved until full punishment is exacted. But the verse still seems to be continuing the thought of how the sins would be forgotten in the next life.
- Job 14:18 tn The indication that this is a simile is to be obtained from the conjunction beginning 19c (see GKC 499 §161.a).
- Job 14:18 tn The word יִבּוֹל (yibbol) usually refers to a flower fading and so seems strange here. The LXX and the Syriac translate “and will fall”; most commentators accept this and repoint the preceding word to get “and will surely fall.” Duhm retains the MT and applies the image of the flower to the falling mountain. The verb is used of the earth in Isa 24:4, and so NIV, RSV, and NJPS all have the idea of “crumble away.”
- Job 14:19 tn Heb “the overflowings of it”; the word סְפִיחֶיהָ (sefikheha) in the text is changed by just about everyone. The idea of “its overflowings” or more properly “its aftergrowths” (Lev 25:5; 2 Kgs 19:29; etc.) does not fit here at all. Budde suggested reading סְחִפָה (sekhifah), which is cognate to Arabic sahifeh, “torrential rain, rainstorm”—that which sweeps away the soil. The word סָחַף (sakhaf) in Hebrew might have a wider usage than the effects of rain.
- Job 14:19 tn Heb “[the] dust of [the] earth.”
- Job 14:19 sn The meaning for Job is that death shatters all of man’s hopes for the continuation of life.
- Job 14:20 tn D. W. Thomas took נֵצַח (netsakh) here to have a superlative meaning: “You prevail utterly against him” (“Use of netsach as a superlative in Hebrew,” JSS 1 : 107). Death would be God’s complete victory over him.
- Job 14:20 tn The subject of the participle is most likely God in this context. Some take it to be man, saying “his face changes.” Others emend the text to read an imperfect verb, but this is not necessary.
- Job 14:21 tn The clause may be interpreted as a conditional clause, with the second clause beginning with the conjunction serving as the apodosis.
- Job 14:21 tn There is no expressed subject for the verb “they honor,” and so it may be taken as a passive.
- Job 14:21 sn Death is separation from the living, from the land of the living. And ignorance of what goes on in this life, good or bad, is part of death. See also Eccl 9:5-6, which makes a similar point.
- Job 14:21 tn The verb is בִּין (bin, “to perceive; to discern”). The parallelism between “know” and “perceive” stresses the point that in death a man does not realize what is happening here in the present life.
- Job 14:22 tn The prepositional phrases using עָלָיו (ʿalayv, “for him[self]”) express the object of the suffering. It is for himself that the dead man “grieves.” So this has to be joined with אַךְ (ʾakh), yielding “only for himself.” Then, “flesh” and “soul/person” form the parallelism for the subjects of the verbs.
- Job 14:22 sn In this verse Job is expressing the common view of life beyond death, namely, that in Sheol there is no contact with the living, only separation, but in Sheol there is a conscious awareness of the dreary existence.