12 1 He exhorteth 2 to that worship which is acceptable to God, 9 to love unfained,  14, 20 even towards our enemies.

I Beseech [a]you therefore brethren, [b]by the mercies of God, that ye [c]give up your [d]bodies a [e]living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your [f]reasonable serving of God.

[g]And fashion not yourselves like unto this world, but be ye changed by the renewing of your [h]mind, that ye may (A)prove what that good, and acceptable and perfect will of God is.

[i]For I [j]say through the grace that is given unto me, to everyone that is among you, that no man [k]presume to understand above that which is meet to understand, but that he understand according to [l]sobriety, as God hath dealt to every man the (B)measure of [m]faith.

[n]For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not one office,

So we being many, are one body in Christ, and every one, one anothers members.

(C)[o]Seeing then that we have gifts that are divers, according to the grace that is given unto us, whether we have prophecy, let us prophesy according to the [p]portion of faith.

Or an office, let us wait on the office: or he that [q]teacheth, on teaching:

Or he that [r]exhorteth, on exhortation: he that [s]distributeth, let him do it (D)with simplicity: he that [t]ruleth, with diligence: he that [u]showeth mercy, with cheerfulness.

[v]Let love be without dissimulation. (E)Abhor that which is evil, and cleave unto that which is good.

10 (F)Be affectioned to love one another with brotherly love. In giving honor, go one before another.

11 Not slothful to do service, fervent in spirit [w]serving the Lord,

12 [x]Rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation, (G)continuing in prayer.

13 (H)[y]Distributing unto the [z]necessities of the Saints: (I)giving yourselves to hospitality.

14 (J)Bless them which persecute you: bless, I say, and curse not.

15 Rejoice with them that rejoice, and weep with them that weep.

16 Be like affectioned one towards another: (K)be not high-minded: but make yourselves equal to them of the [aa]lower sort: be not [ab]wise in yourselves.

17 (L)Recompense to no man evil for evil: procure things honest in the sight of all men.

18 (M)If it be possible, as much as in you is, have peace with all men.

19 Dearly beloved, (N)avenge not yourselves, but give place unto wrath: for it is written, (O)Vengeance is mine: I will repay, saith the Lord.

20 (P)Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him: if he thirst, give him drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap [ac]coals of fire on his head.

21 Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with goodness.


  1. Romans 12:1 The fourth part of this Epistle, which after the finishing of the chief points of Christian doctrine, consisteth in declaring of precepts of Christian life. And first of all he giveth general precepts and grounds: the chiefest whereof is this that every man consecrate himself wholly to the spiritual service of God, and do as it were sacrifice himself, trusting to the grace of God.
  2. Romans 12:1 By this preface he showeth that God’s glory is the utmost end of all our doings.
  3. Romans 12:1 In times past the sacrifices were presented before the altar, but now the altar is everywhere.
  4. Romans 12:1 Yourselves: in times past, other bodies than our own, now our own must be offered.
  5. Romans 12:1 In times past, dead sacrifices were offered, but now we must offer such as have the spirit of life in them.
  6. Romans 12:1 Spiritual.
  7. Romans 12:2 The second precept is this, That we take not other men’s opinions or manners for a rule of life, but that we wholly renouncing this world, set before us as our mark, the will of God, as it is manifested and opened unto us in his word.
  8. Romans 12:2 Why then there is no place left for reason, which the heathen Philosophers place as a Queen in a Castle, nor for man’s free will, which the Popish Schoolmen dream on, if the mind must be renewed. See Eph. 1:18 and 2:5 and 4:17 and Col. 1:21.
  9. Romans 12:3 Thirdly he admonisheth us very earnestly, that every man keep himself within the bounds of his vocation, and that every man be wise according to the measure of grace that God hath given him.
  10. Romans 12:3 I charge.
  11. Romans 12:3 That he please not himself too much, as they do, which persuade themselves they know more than indeed they do.
  12. Romans 12:3 We will be sober if we take not that upon us, which we have not, and if we brag not of that we have.
  13. Romans 12:3 By faith he meaneth the knowledge of God in Christ, and the gifts which the holy Ghost poureth upon the faithful.
  14. Romans 12:4 There is a double reason of the precept going afore: the one is because God hath not committed everything to be done of every man: and therefore, he doeth backwardly, and not only unprofitably, but also to the great disprofit of others, wearieth himself and others, which passeth the bounds of his vocation: the other is, for that this diversity and inequality of vocations and gifts, redoundeth to our commodity seeing that the same is therefore instituted and appointed, that we should be bound one to another. Whereupon it followeth that no man ought to be grieved thereat, seeing that the use of every private gift is common.
  15. Romans 12:6 That which he spake before in general, he applieth particularly to the holy functions, wherein men offend with greater danger. And he divideth them into two sorts, to wit, into Prophets, and Deacons, and again he divideth the Prophets into doctors, and Pastors. And of Deacons he maketh three sorts: to wit, the one to be such as are (as it were) treasurers of the Church coffers, whom he calleth properly Deacons: the other to be the governors of discipline, who are called Seniors or Elders: the third to be such as properly served in the help of the poor, of which sort the company of widows were.
  16. Romans 12:6 That every man observe the measure of that which is revealed unto him.
  17. Romans 12:7 Whose office only is to expound the Scriptures.
  18. Romans 12:8 Who in other places is called the Pastor.
  19. Romans 12:8 To wit, the alms, that he distribute them faithfully, and without respect of person.
  20. Romans 12:8 The Elders of the Church.
  21. Romans 12:8 They that are busied about tending on the poor, must do it with cheerfulness, lest they add sorrow to sorrow.
  22. Romans 12:9 Now he cometh to the duties of the second Table, which he deriveth from charity, which is as it were the fountain of them all. And he defineth Christian charity by sincerity, hatred of evil, earnest study of good things, good affection to help our neighbor, and whose final end is, the glory of God.
  23. Romans 12:11 This piece is well put in, for it maketh difference between Christian duties, and Philosophical duties.
  24. Romans 12:12 He reckoneth up divers other virtues together with their effects, to wit, hope, patience in tribulation, equanimity, continuance in prayer, liberality towards the saints, hospitality, moderation of mind, even in helping our enemies, a selfsame feeling with others as well in adversity as prosperity, modesty, endeavor to maintain honest concord so nigh as we may with all men, which cannot be extinguished by any man’s injuries.
  25. Romans 12:13 A true rule of charity, when we are no less touched with other men’s wants, than with our own, and having that feeling, help them as much as we can.
  26. Romans 12:13 Not upon pleasure, and needless duties, but upon necessary uses.
  27. Romans 12:16 There is nothing that doth so much break concord as ambition, when as every man loatheth a base estate, and seeketh ambitiously to be aloft.
  28. Romans 12:16 Be not puffed up, with opinion of your own wisdom.
  29. Romans 12:20 After this sort doth Solomon point out the wrath of God which hangeth over a man.

A Living Sacrifice

12 Therefore, I urge you,(A) brothers and sisters, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice,(B) holy and pleasing to God—this is your true and proper worship. Do not conform(C) to the pattern of this world,(D) but be transformed by the renewing of your mind.(E) Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is(F)—his good, pleasing(G) and perfect will.

Humble Service in the Body of Christ

For by the grace given me(H) I say to every one of you: Do not think of yourself more highly than you ought, but rather think of yourself with sober judgment, in accordance with the faith God has distributed to each of you. For just as each of us has one body with many members, and these members do not all have the same function,(I) so in Christ we, though many, form one body,(J) and each member belongs to all the others. We have different gifts,(K) according to the grace given to each of us. If your gift is prophesying,(L) then prophesy in accordance with your[a] faith;(M) if it is serving, then serve; if it is teaching, then teach;(N) if it is to encourage, then give encouragement;(O) if it is giving, then give generously;(P) if it is to lead,[b] do it diligently; if it is to show mercy, do it cheerfully.

Love in Action

Love must be sincere.(Q) Hate what is evil; cling to what is good.(R) 10 Be devoted to one another in love.(S) Honor one another above yourselves.(T) 11 Never be lacking in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor,(U) serving the Lord. 12 Be joyful in hope,(V) patient in affliction,(W) faithful in prayer.(X) 13 Share with the Lord’s people who are in need.(Y) Practice hospitality.(Z)

14 Bless those who persecute you;(AA) bless and do not curse. 15 Rejoice with those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn.(AB) 16 Live in harmony with one another.(AC) Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position.[c] Do not be conceited.(AD)

17 Do not repay anyone evil for evil.(AE) Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everyone.(AF) 18 If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone.(AG) 19 Do not take revenge,(AH) my dear friends, but leave room for God’s wrath, for it is written: “It is mine to avenge; I will repay,”[d](AI) says the Lord. 20 On the contrary:

“If your enemy is hungry, feed him;
    if he is thirsty, give him something to drink.
In doing this, you will heap burning coals on his head.”[e](AJ)

21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.


  1. Romans 12:6 Or the
  2. Romans 12:8 Or to provide for others
  3. Romans 12:16 Or willing to do menial work
  4. Romans 12:19 Deut. 32:35
  5. Romans 12:20 Prov. 25:21,22

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