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15 His feet were like polished bronze[a] refined[b] in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar[c] of many waters.

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  1. Revelation 1:15 tn The precise meaning of the term translated “polished bronze” (χαλκολιβάνῳ, chalkolibanō), which appears nowhere else in Greek literature outside of the book of Revelation (see 2:18), is uncertain. Without question it is some sort of metal. BDAG 1076 s.v. χαλκολίβανον suggests “fine brass/bronze.” L&N 2.57 takes the word to refer to particularly valuable or fine bronze, but notes that the emphasis here and in Rev 2:18 is more on the lustrous quality of the metal.
  2. Revelation 1:15 tn Or “that has been heated in a furnace until it glows.”
  3. Revelation 1:15 tn Grk “sound,” but the idea is closer to the roar of a waterfall or rapids.

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