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Israel’s Journey from Egypt to Moab

33 As Israel traveled from Egypt under the command of Moses and Aaron, Moses kept a list of the places they camped, just as the Lord had instructed. Here is the record of their journey:

3-4 Israel left the Egyptian city of Rameses on the fifteenth day of the first month.[a] This was the day after the Lord had punished Egypt’s gods by killing the first-born sons in every Egyptian family. So while the Egyptians were burying the bodies, they watched the Israelites proudly[b] leave their country.

After the Israelites left Rameses, they camped at Succoth, and from there, they moved their camp to Etham on the edge of the desert. Then they turned back toward Pi-Hahiroth, east of Baal-Zephon, and camped near Migdol. They left Pi-Hahiroth,[c] crossed the Red Sea,[d] then walked three days into the Etham Desert and camped at Marah. Next, they camped at Elim, where there were twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees. 10 They left Elim and camped near the Red Sea,[e] 11 then turned east and camped along the western edge of the Sinai Desert.[f] 12-14 From there they went to Dophkah, Alush, and Rephidim, where they had no water.[g] 15 They left Rephidim and finally reached the Sinai Desert.

16-36 As Israel traveled from the Sinai Desert to Kadesh in the Zin Desert, they camped at Kibroth-Hattaavah, Hazeroth, Rithmah, Rimmon-Perez, Libnah, Rissah, Kehelathah, Mount Shepher, Haradah, Makheloth, Tahath, Terah, Mithkah, Hashmonah, Moseroth, Bene-Jaakan, Hor-Haggidgad, Jotbathah, Abronah, Ezion-Geber, and finally Kadesh. 37 When they left Kadesh, they came to Mount Hor, on the border of Edom.

38 That’s where the Lord commanded Aaron the priest to go to the top of the mountain. Aaron died there on the first day of the fifth month,[h] forty years after the Israelites left Egypt. 39 He was one hundred twenty-three years old at the time.

40 It was then that the Canaanite king of Arad, who lived in the Southern Desert of Canaan, heard that Israel was headed that way.

41-47 The Israelites left Mount Hor and headed toward Moab. Along the way, they camped at Zalmonah, Punon, Oboth, Iye-Abarim in the territory of Moab, Dibon-Gad, Almon-Diblathaim, at a place near Mount Nebo in the Abarim Mountains, 48 and finally in the lowlands of Moab across the Jordan River from Jericho. 49 Their camp stretched from Beth-Jeshimoth to Acacia.

The Lord’s Command To Conquer Canaan

50 While Israel was camped in the lowlands of Moab across the Jordan River from Jericho, the Lord told Moses 51 to give the people of Israel this message:

When you cross the Jordan River and enter Canaan, 52 you must force out the people living there. Destroy their idols and tear down their altars. 53 Then settle in the land—I have given it to you as your own.

54 I will show you[i] how to divide the land among the tribes, according to the number of clans in each one, so that the larger tribes will have more land than the smaller ones.

55 If you don’t force out all the people there, they will be like pointed sticks in your eyes and thorns in your back. They will always be trouble for you, 56 and I will treat you as cruelly as I planned on treating them.


  1. 33.3,4 first month: See the note at 9.3.
  2. 33.3,4 proudly: Or “bravely.”
  3. 33.8 Pi-Hahiroth: Two ancient translations and the Samaritan Hebrew Text; the Standard Hebrew Text “a place near Hahiroth.”
  4. 33.8 Red Sea: Hebrew hayyam “the Sea,” understood as yam suph, “Sea of Reeds” (see also the note at Exodus 13.18).
  5. 33.10 Red Sea: Hebrew yam suph, here referring to the Gulf of Suez, since the term is extended to include the northwestern arm of the Red Sea (see also the note at Exodus 13.18).
  6. 33.11 the western edge of the Sinai Desert: Hebrew “the Sin Desert.”
  7. 33.12-14 Rephidim. . . no water: See Exodus 17.1-7.
  8. 33.38 fifth month: Ab, the fifth month of the Hebrew calendar, from about mid-July to mid-August.
  9. 33.54 I will show you: See the note at 26.55,56.

Stages in Israel’s Journey

33 Here are the stages in the journey(A) of the Israelites when they came out of Egypt(B) by divisions under the leadership of Moses and Aaron.(C) At the Lord’s command Moses recorded(D) the stages in their journey(E). This is their journey by stages:

The Israelites set out(F) from Rameses(G) on the fifteenth day of the first month, the day after the Passover.(H) They marched out defiantly(I) in full view of all the Egyptians, who were burying all their firstborn,(J) whom the Lord had struck down among them; for the Lord had brought judgment(K) on their gods.(L)

The Israelites left Rameses and camped at Sukkoth.(M)

They left Sukkoth and camped at Etham, on the edge of the desert.(N)

They left Etham, turned back to Pi Hahiroth, to the east of Baal Zephon,(O) and camped near Migdol.(P)

They left Pi Hahiroth[a](Q) and passed through the sea(R) into the desert, and when they had traveled for three days in the Desert of Etham, they camped at Marah.(S)

They left Marah and went to Elim, where there were twelve springs and seventy palm trees, and they camped(T) there.

10 They left Elim(U) and camped by the Red Sea.[b]

11 They left the Red Sea and camped in the Desert of Sin.(V)

12 They left the Desert of Sin and camped at Dophkah.

13 They left Dophkah and camped at Alush.

14 They left Alush and camped at Rephidim, where there was no water for the people to drink.(W)

15 They left Rephidim(X) and camped in the Desert of Sinai.(Y)

16 They left the Desert of Sinai and camped at Kibroth Hattaavah.(Z)

17 They left Kibroth Hattaavah and camped at Hazeroth.(AA)

18 They left Hazeroth and camped at Rithmah.

19 They left Rithmah and camped at Rimmon Perez.

20 They left Rimmon Perez and camped at Libnah.(AB)

21 They left Libnah and camped at Rissah.

22 They left Rissah and camped at Kehelathah.

23 They left Kehelathah and camped at Mount Shepher.

24 They left Mount Shepher and camped at Haradah.

25 They left Haradah and camped at Makheloth.

26 They left Makheloth and camped at Tahath.

27 They left Tahath and camped at Terah.

28 They left Terah and camped at Mithkah.

29 They left Mithkah and camped at Hashmonah.

30 They left Hashmonah and camped at Moseroth.(AC)

31 They left Moseroth and camped at Bene Jaakan.(AD)

32 They left Bene Jaakan and camped at Hor Haggidgad.

33 They left Hor Haggidgad and camped at Jotbathah.(AE)

34 They left Jotbathah and camped at Abronah.

35 They left Abronah and camped at Ezion Geber.(AF)

36 They left Ezion Geber and camped at Kadesh, in the Desert of Zin.(AG)

37 They left Kadesh and camped at Mount Hor,(AH) on the border of Edom.(AI) 38 At the Lord’s command Aaron the priest went up Mount Hor, where he died(AJ) on the first day of the fifth month of the fortieth year(AK) after the Israelites came out of Egypt.(AL) 39 Aaron was a hundred and twenty-three years old when he died on Mount Hor.

40 The Canaanite king(AM) of Arad,(AN) who lived in the Negev(AO) of Canaan, heard that the Israelites were coming.

41 They left Mount Hor and camped at Zalmonah.

42 They left Zalmonah and camped at Punon.

43 They left Punon and camped at Oboth.(AP)

44 They left Oboth and camped at Iye Abarim, on the border of Moab.(AQ)

45 They left Iye Abarim and camped at Dibon Gad.

46 They left Dibon Gad and camped at Almon Diblathaim.

47 They left Almon Diblathaim and camped in the mountains of Abarim,(AR) near Nebo.(AS)

48 They left the mountains of Abarim(AT) and camped on the plains of Moab(AU) by the Jordan(AV) across from Jericho.(AW) 49 There on the plains of Moab they camped along the Jordan from Beth Jeshimoth(AX) to Abel Shittim.(AY)

50 On the plains of Moab by the Jordan across from Jericho(AZ) the Lord said to Moses, 51 “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘When you cross the Jordan into Canaan,(BA) 52 drive out all the inhabitants of the land before you. Destroy all their carved images and their cast idols, and demolish all their high places.(BB) 53 Take possession of the land and settle in it, for I have given you the land to possess.(BC) 54 Distribute the land by lot,(BD) according to your clans.(BE) To a larger group give a larger inheritance, and to a smaller group a smaller one.(BF) Whatever falls to them by lot will be theirs. Distribute it according to your ancestral tribes.(BG)

55 “‘But if you do not drive out the inhabitants of the land, those you allow to remain will become barbs in your eyes and thorns(BH) in your sides. They will give you trouble in the land where you will live. 56 And then I will do to you what I plan to do to them.(BI)’”


  1. Numbers 33:8 Many manuscripts of the Masoretic Text, Samaritan Pentateuch and Vulgate; most manuscripts of the Masoretic Text left from before Hahiroth
  2. Numbers 33:10 Or the Sea of Reeds; also in verse 11

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