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20 It[a] will become a visual reminder in the land of Egypt of[b] the Lord of Heaven’s Armies. When they cry out to the Lord because of oppressors, he will send them a deliverer and defender[c] who will rescue them.

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  1. Isaiah 19:20 tn The masculine noun מִזְבֵּחַ (mizbeakh, “altar”) in v. 19 is probably the subject of the masculine singular verb הָיָה (hayah) rather than the feminine noun מַצֵּבָה (matsevah, “sacred pillar”), also in v. 19.
  2. Isaiah 19:20 tn Heb “a sign and a witness to the Lord of Heaven’s Armies [traditionally, “the Lord of hosts”] in the land of Egypt.”
  3. Isaiah 19:20 tn רָב (rav) is a substantival participle (from רִיב, riv) meaning “one who strives, contends.”

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