11 “In the first year that Darius the Mede was king [C 539 bc; 5:31], I [C the unnamed angel speaking to Daniel; 10:5] stood up to support and strengthen him [C Michael, in his fight against the prince of Persia].
Kingdoms of the South and North
2 “Now then, Daniel, I tell you the truth: Three more kings will ·rule [L arise] in Persia, and then a fourth king will come. He will be much richer than all ·the kings of Persia before him [L of them] and will use his riches to get power [C perhaps Darius III, the last king of Persia]. He will stir up everyone against the kingdom of ·Greece [L Javan]. 3 Then a ·mighty [or warrior] king will ·come [L arise], who will rule with great power and will do anything he wants [C Alexander the Great, who defeats Persia]. 4 After that king ·has come [L arises], his kingdom will be broken up and divided out toward the four ·parts of the world [L winds of heaven]. His kingdom will not go to his ·descendants [posterity], and ·it will not have the power that he had [L not according to the dominion of his dominion], because his kingdom will be pulled up and given to other people [C Alexander’s kingdom was divided among his four most powerful generals, the Diadochoi].
5 “The king of the South [C Ptolemy I; the South is the Ptolemaic kingdom with its chief city in Alexandria, Egypt] will become strong, but one of his commanders will become even stronger [C Seleucus, the founding king of the Seleucid kingdom with its chief city in Antioch, Syria]. He will begin to rule his own kingdom with great power. 6 Then ·after a few [L at the end of] years, ·a new friendship will develop [they will enter an alliance]. The daughter of the king of the South will ·marry [L come to] the king of the North ·in order to bring peace [L to establish an agreement; C a marriage alliance between Berenice, daughter of the Ptolemaic king, and Antiochus II Theos of the Seleucid kingdom]. But she will not ·keep [retain] her power, and his ·family [L seed; or power] will not last. She, her husband, her child, and those who ·brought her to that country [supported her] will be ·killed [L given up; C they were poisoned in a political intrigue].
7 “But a ·person from her family [L branch of her roots] will ·become king of the South [L arise in his place] and will ·attack [L come against] the armies of the king of the North [C Ptolemy III waged war against Seleucus II]. He will go into that king’s ·strong, walled city [fortress] and will ·fight [act] and win. 8 He will take their gods, their metal idols, and their ·valuable [L favored; coveted; desired] things made of silver and gold back to Egypt as plunder. Then he will not bother the king of the North for a few years. 9 Next, ·the king of the North [L he] will ·attack [L come against] the king of the South, but he will ·be beaten back [return] to his own ·country [land; C the battles between the Seleucids and the Ptolemies would continue].
10 “His [C the king of the North] sons [C Seleucus III and Antiochus III the Great] will prepare for war. They will get a large ·army [multitude; horde] together that will move through the land, like a flood [C powerfully and quickly]. Later, that army will come back and fight all the way to the ·strong, walled city [fortress; C of the king of the South, Ptolemy IV; the fortress may refer to Gaza]. 11 Then the king of the South will become very angry and will march out to fight against the king of the North [C the battle of Raphia between Ptolemy IV and Antiochus III in 217 bc]. The king of the North will ·have [raise] a large ·army [multitude; horde], but he will ·lose the battle [L be delivered into his hand], 12 and the ·soldiers [multitude; horde] will be carried away. ·The king of the South will then be very proud [L His heart will be lifted up] and will ·kill [L fell] ·thousands of soldiers [L myriads; tens of thousands] from the northern army, but he will not ·continue to be successful [prevail; be victorious]. 13 The king of the North will gather another ·army [multitude; horde], larger than the first one. After ·several [a period of] years he will attack with a large ·army [force] and many ·weapons [or supplies].
14 “In those times many people will ·be [L rise up] against the king of the South. ·Some of your own people who love to fight [Wild/Violent men; L Sons who make breaches among your people; C Jewish men] will ·turn [L lift themselves up] against the king of the South, ·thinking it is time for God’s promises to come true [L to fulfill the vision]. But they will ·fail [stumble; falter]. 15 Then the king of the North will come. He will ·build [throw up] ·ramps to the tops of the city walls [siege engines] and will capture a ·strong, walled [fortified] city. The southern ·army [forces] will not ·have the power to fight back [endure; last]; even their best soldiers will not be strong enough to ·stop the northern army [endure; last]. 16 So the ·king of the North [L one who invades him] will do whatever he ·wants [pleases]; no one will be able to ·stand [endure; last] against him. He will gain power and control in the beautiful land [C of Judah; 8:9] and ·will have the power to destroy it [L all of it will be in his hand/power]. 17 The king of the North will ·decide [L set his face] to ·use [bring] all his power to fight against the king of the South, but he will make a peace agreement with the king of the South. The king of the North will give one of his daughters as a wife to the king of the South so that he can ·defeat [destroy] him [C Cleopatra was given to Ptolemy V in marriage to serve as a spy]. But those plans will not ·succeed [stand; endure; last] or help him [C Cleopatra changed loyalties]. 18 Then the king of the North will turn his attention to the coastlines [C cities along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea; Antiochus was able to take some cities in Asia Minor] and will capture ·them [L many]. But a commander [C the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio commanded him to cease warfare] will put an end to ·the pride of the king of the North [L his scorn], turning his ·pride [scorn] back on him. 19 After that happens the king of the North will go back to the ·strong, walled [fortified] cities of his own country, but he will ·lose his power [L stumble and fall]. ·That will be the end of him [L …and not be found; C Antiochus III died in 187 bc].
20 “·The next king of the North will send out a tax collector so he will have plenty of money [L Then one will arise in his place who will send out a tax collector/despot/oppressor for/or to enhance the splendor of the kingdom]. In ·a few years [L later/after days] that ruler will be ·killed [L broken], ·although he will not die in [L not by] anger or in a battle [C Seleucus IV died in mysterious circumstances, perhaps killed by his brother Antiochus IV also known as Epiphanes].
21 “·That ruler will be followed by [L Then one will arise in his place who is] ·a very cruel and hated man [L despised], who had not yet been given the honor of royalty [C Antiochus Epiphanes, who will be the focus of much of the rest of the chapter]. He will attack ·the kingdom when the people feel safe [without warning], and he will take power by ·lying to the people [intrigue]. 22 He will sweep away in defeat ·large and powerful [L floodlike] ·armies [forces] and even a prince who made an ·agreement [covenant; treaty]. 23 Many nations will make ·agreements [alliances] with ·that cruel and hated ruler [L him], but he will lie to them. He will gain much power, but only a few people will support him. 24 The richest ·areas [or people of a province] will feel safe, but ·that cruel and hated ruler [L he] will attack them. He will succeed where his ·ancestors [L fathers and father’s fathers] did not. He will ·rob the countries he defeats and will give those things to his followers [L scatter spoil, plunder, and goods to them]. He will plan ·to defeat and destroy strong cities [L against strongholds], ·but he will be successful for only a short time [L until a time].
25 “·That very cruel and hated ruler [L He] will have a large army that he will use to stir up his strength and ·courage [L heart]. He will attack the king of the South [C the Seleucid king Ptolemy VI]. The king of the South will gather a large and very powerful army and prepare for war. But ·the people who are against him will make secret plans, and the king of the South will be defeated [L he will not stand/endure because of the plans they planned against him]. 26 People who ·were supposed to be his good friends [L eat his royal rations; C Ptolemy VI’s advisors Eulaeus and Lenaeus] will try to ·destroy [L break] him. His army will be swept away in defeat; many ·of his soldiers will be killed in battle [L corpses will fall]. 27 Those two kings will ·want to hurt each other [L have their hearts/minds toward evil/harm]. They will sit at the same table and lie to each other, but it will not ·do either one any good [succeed], because ·God has set a time for their end to come [the appointed time of the end has been set]. 28 ·The king of the North [L He; C Antiochus] will go back to his own country with much wealth. Then he will decide to go against the holy ·agreement [covenant; treaty; C as Antiochus returned to Syria from Egypt, he took aggressive action against the Jews in Jerusalem]. He will take action and then return to his own country.
29 “At the ·right [appointed] time ·the king of the North [L he] will attack the king of the South again, but this time ·he will not be successful as he was before [L it will not be as before]. 30 Ships from ·the west [L Kittim; C Rome, which made Antiochus stand down from his attack on the South] will come and fight against ·the king of the North [L him], so he will be ·afraid [startled; or dismayed]. Then he will return and show his anger against the holy ·agreement [covenant; treaty]. He will be good to those who have ·stopped obeying [L abandoned; forsaken] the holy ·agreement [covenant; treaty; C the pro-Antiochus party among the Jewish people].
31 “·The king of the North will send his army [L Forces from him will arise] to ·make the Temple in Jerusalem unclean [L profane the Holy Place and fortress]. They will ·stop the people from offering [L turn aside] the ·daily [regular] sacrifice [8:12], and then they will set up a ·blasphemous object that brings destruction [L abomination of desolation; C a pagan object, perhaps a meteorite dedicated to Zeus, would be placed in the holy place; Matt. 24:15; Mark 13:14; also 1 Maccabees 1:44–47, 54 in the Apocrypha]. 32 ·The king of the North [L He] will tell lies and cause those who have ·not obeyed God [L transgressed the agreement/covenant/treaty] to ·be ruined [L become godless]. But those who know God and obey him will be strong and fight back.
33 “Those who are ·wise [L insightful among the people] will help ·the others [L many] understand what is happening. But they will ·be killed [L stumble] with swords, or ·burned [L with flame], or ·taken captive [L by exile], or ·robbed of their homes and possessions [L by spoil]. These things will continue for many days. 34 When ·the wise ones are suffering [L they stumble], they will get a little help, but many who join ·the wise ones [L them] will ·not help them in their time of need [L be insincere]. 35 Some of the ·wise [L insightful] ones will ·be killed [L stumble]. ·But the hard times must come so they can be made stronger and purer and without faults [L …in order to refine, to purify, and to cleanse them] until the time of the end comes. Then, at the right time, the end will come.
The King Who Praises Himself
36 “·The king of the North [L The king] will do whatever he ·wants [pleases; desires]. He will ·brag about [exalt] himself and praise himself and think he is even better than a god. He will say ·things [fantastic/horrendous things] against the God of gods that no one has ever heard. And he will be successful until ·all the bad things have happened [L rage is completed]. Then what ·God has planned to happen [L is determined] will happen. 37 ·The king of the North [L He] will ·not care about [pay no attention to] the gods ·his ancestors worshiped [L of his ancestors/fathers; C he replaced the worship of Apollos with that of Zeus] or the god ·that women worship [L desired/coveted/favored by women; C perhaps Adonis or Dionysius]. He won’t ·care about [pay attention to] any god. Instead, he will ·make himself more important than any god [L exalt himself above all]. 38 ·The king of the North [L He] will ·worship [glorify] ·power and strength [L a god of fortresses in his place], ·which his ancestors did not worship [L a god his ancestors/fathers did not know]. He will ·honor [glorify] the god of power with gold and silver, ·expensive jewels [precious stones] and ·gifts [L desired/coveted/favored things]. 39 That king will attack ·strong, walled cities [fortresses] with the help of a foreign god. He will give much ·honor [glory; or wealth] to the people who ·join [acknowledge; recognize] him, making them rulers in charge of many other people. And he will ·make them pay him for the land they rule [L distribute the land for a price].
40 “At the time of the end, the king of the South will ·fight a battle [L butt] against ·the king of the North [L him]. The king of the North will ·attack [L rush in on him] with chariots, soldiers on horses, and many large ships. He will invade many countries and sweep through their lands like a flood. 41 The king of the North will attack the beautiful land [C Judah; 8:9]. He will ·defeat many countries [L cause many to stumble], but Edom, Moab, and the ·leaders [L heads; or main part] of Ammon will be saved from ·him [L his hand]. 42 ·The king of the North [L He] will ·show his power in [L send his hand against] many countries; Egypt will not escape. 43 ·The king [L He] will ·get [L rule over the] treasures of gold and silver and all the riches of Egypt. The Libyan and ·Nubian [or Ethiopian; L Cushite] people will ·obey him [L follow in his tracks]. 44 But the king of the North will hear ·news [reports] from the east and the north that will make him ·afraid [terrified] and angry. He will go to [L devastate and] destroy completely many. 45 He will ·set up [pitch] his royal tents between the sea and the beautiful holy mountain [C Zion, the location of the Temple]. But, finally, his end will come, and no one will help him.