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until the day he was taken up to heaven,[a] after he had given orders[b] by[c] the Holy Spirit to the apostles he had chosen.

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  1. Acts 1:2 tn The words “to heaven” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied from v. 11. Several modern translations (NIV, NRSV) supply the words “to heaven” after “taken up” to specify the destination explicitly mentioned later in 1:11.
  2. Acts 1:2 tn Or “commands.” Although some modern translations render ἐντειλάμενος (enteilamenos) as “instructions” (NIV, NRSV), the word implies authority or official sanction (G. Schrenk, TDNT 2:545), so that a word like “orders” conveys the idea more effectively. The action of the temporal participle is antecedent (prior) to the action of the verb it modifies (“taken up”).
  3. Acts 1:2 tn Or “through.”

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