1 Kings 20
New English Translation
Ben Hadad Invades Israel
20 Now King Ben Hadad of Syria assembled all his army, along with thirty-two other kings with their horses and chariots. He marched against Samaria and besieged and attacked it.[a] 2 He sent messengers to King Ahab of Israel, who was in the city.[b] He said to him, “This is what Ben Hadad says: 3 ‘Your silver and your gold are mine, as well as the best of your wives and sons.’” 4 The king of Israel replied, “It is just as you say, my master, O king. I and all I own belong to you.”
5 The messengers came again and said, “This is what Ben Hadad says: ‘I sent this message to you, “You must give me your silver, gold, wives, and sons.” 6 But now at this time tomorrow I will send my servants to you and they will search through your palace and your servants’ houses. They will carry away all your valuables.’”[c] 7 The king of Israel summoned all the leaders[d] of the land and said, “Notice how this man is looking for trouble.[e] Indeed, he demanded my wives, sons, silver, and gold, and I did not resist him.” 8 All the leaders and people said to him, “Do not give in or agree to his demands.”[f] 9 So he said to the messengers of Ben Hadad, “Say this to my master, the king: ‘I will give you everything you demanded at first from your servant, but I am unable to agree to this latest demand.’”[g] So the messengers went back and gave their report.
10 Ben Hadad sent another message to him, “May the gods judge me severely[h] if there is enough dirt left in Samaria for all my soldiers to scoop up in their hands.”[i] 11 The king of Israel replied, “Tell him the one who puts on his battle gear should not boast like one who is taking it off.”[j] 12 When Ben Hadad received this reply,[k] he and the other kings were drinking in their quarters.[l] He ordered his servants, “Get ready to attack!” So they got ready to attack the city.
The Lord Delivers Israel
13 Now a prophet visited King Ahab of Israel and said, “This is what the Lord has said: ‘Do you see this huge army?[m] Look, I am going to hand it over to you this very day. Then you will know that I am the Lord.’” 14 Ahab asked, “By whom will this be accomplished?”[n] He answered, “This is what the Lord has said, ‘By the servants of the district governors.’” Ahab[o] asked, “Who will launch the attack?” He answered, “You will.”
15 So Ahab[p] assembled the 232 servants of the district governors. After that he assembled all the Israelite army, numbering 7,000. 16 They marched out at noon, while Ben Hadad and the 32 kings allied with him were drinking heavily[q] in their quarters.[r] 17 The servants of the district governors led the march. When Ben Hadad sent messengers, they reported back to him, “Men are marching out of Samaria.” 18 He ordered, “Whether they come in peace or to do battle, take them alive.”[s] 19 They marched out of the city with the servants of the district governors in the lead and the army behind them. 20 Each one struck down an enemy soldier;[t] the Syrians fled and Israel chased them. King Ben Hadad of Syria escaped on horseback with some horsemen. 21 Then the king of Israel marched out and struck down the horses and chariots; he thoroughly defeated[u] Syria.
The Lord Gives Israel Another Victory
22 The prophet[v] visited the king of Israel and instructed him, “Go, fortify your defenses.[w] Determine[x] what you must do, for in the spring[y] the king of Syria will attack[z] you.” 23 Now the advisers[aa] of the king of Syria said to him: “Their God is a god of the mountains. That’s why they overpowered us. But if we fight them in the plains, we will certainly overpower them. 24 So do this: Dismiss the kings from their command, and replace them with military commanders. 25 Muster an army like the one you lost, with the same number of horses and chariots.[ab] Then we will fight them in the plains; we will certainly overpower them.” He approved their plan and did as they advised.[ac]
26 In the spring[ad] Ben Hadad mustered the Syrian army[ae] and marched to Aphek to fight Israel.[af] 27 When the Israelites had mustered and received their supplies, they marched out to face them in battle. When the Israelites deployed opposite them, they were like two small flocks[ag] of goats, but the Syrians filled the land. 28 The prophet[ah] visited the king of Israel and said, “This is what the Lord has said: ‘Because the Syrians said, “The Lord is a god of the mountains and not a god of the valleys,” I will deliver this entire huge army into to your control. Then you will know that I am the Lord.’
29 The armies were deployed opposite each other for seven days. On the seventh day the battle began, and the Israelites killed 100,000 Syrian foot soldiers in one day. 30 The remaining 27,000 ran to Aphek and went into the city, but the wall fell on them.[ai] Now Ben Hadad ran into the city and hid in an inner room.[aj] 31 His advisers[ak] said to him, “Look, we have heard that the kings of the Israelite dynasty are kind.[al] Allow us to put sackcloth around our waists and ropes on our heads[am] and surrender[an] to the king of Israel. Maybe he will spare our lives.” 32 So they put sackcloth around their waists and ropes on their heads and went to the king of Israel. They said, “Your servant[ao] Ben Hadad says, ‘Please let me live!’” Ahab[ap] replied, “Is he still alive? He is my brother.”[aq] 33 The men took this as a good omen and quickly accepted his offer, saying, “Ben Hadad is your brother.” Ahab[ar] then said, “Go, get him.” So Ben Hadad came out to him, and Ahab pulled him up into his chariot. 34 Ben Hadad[as] said, “I will return the cities my father took from your father. You may set up markets[at] in Damascus, just as my father did in Samaria.” Ahab then said, “I want to make a treaty with you before I dismiss you.”[au] So he made a treaty with him and then dismissed him.
A Prophet Denounces Ahab’s Actions
35 One of the members of the prophetic guild[av] told his companion a message from the Lord, “Please wound me!” But the man refused to wound him. 36 So the prophet[aw] said to him, “Because you have disobeyed the Lord, as soon as you leave me a lion will kill you.” When he left him, a lion attacked and killed him. 37 He found another man and said, “Wound me!” So the man wounded him severely.[ax] 38 The prophet then went and stood by the road, waiting for the king. He also disguised himself by putting a bandage down over his eyes. 39 When the king passed by, he called out to the king, “Your servant went out into the heat[ay] of the battle, and then a man turned aside and brought me a prisoner.[az] He told me, ‘Guard this prisoner. If he ends up missing for any reason,[ba] you will pay with your life or with a talent[bb] of silver.’[bc] 40 Well, it just so happened that while your servant was doing this and that, he disappeared.” The king of Israel said to him, “Your punishment is already determined by your own testimony.”[bd] 41 The prophet[be] quickly removed the bandage from his eyes, and the king of Israel recognized he was one of the prophets. 42 The prophet[bf] then said to him, “This is what the Lord has said: ‘Because you released a man I had determined should die, you will pay with your life, and your people will suffer instead of his people.’”[bg] 43 The king of Israel went home to Samaria bitter and angry.
- 1 Kings 20:1 tn Heb “and he went up and besieged Samaria and fought against it.”
- 1 Kings 20:2 tn Heb “to the city.”
- 1 Kings 20:6 tn Heb “all that is desirable to your eyes they will put in their hand and take.”
- 1 Kings 20:7 tn Heb “elders.”
- 1 Kings 20:7 tn Heb “Know and see that this [man] is seeking trouble.”
- 1 Kings 20:8 tn Heb “Do not listen and do not be willing.”
- 1 Kings 20:9 tn Heb “all which you sent to your servant in the beginning I will do, but this thing I am unable to do.”
- 1 Kings 20:10 tn Heb “So may the gods do to me, and so may they add.”
- 1 Kings 20:10 tn Heb “if the dirt of Samaria suffices for the handfuls of all the people who are at my feet.”
- 1 Kings 20:11 sn The point of the saying is that someone who is still preparing for a battle should not boast as if he has already won the battle. A modern parallel would be, “Don’t count your chickens before they’re hatched.”
- 1 Kings 20:12 tn Heb “When he heard this word.”
- 1 Kings 20:12 tn Heb “in the temporary shelters.” This is probably referring to tents.
- 1 Kings 20:13 tn Heb “see all this great horde.”
- 1 Kings 20:14 tn The words “will this be accomplished” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- 1 Kings 20:14 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Ahab) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Kings 20:15 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Ahab) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Kings 20:16 tn Heb “drinking and drunken.”
- 1 Kings 20:16 tn Heb “in the temporary shelters.” This is probably referring to tents.
- 1 Kings 20:18 tn Heb “if they come in peace, take them alive; if they come for battle, take them alive.”
- 1 Kings 20:20 tn Heb “each struck down his man.”
- 1 Kings 20:21 tn Heb “struck down Aram with a great striking down.”
- 1 Kings 20:22 tn The definite article indicates previous reference, that is, “the prophet mentioned earlier” (see v. 13).
- 1 Kings 20:22 tn Heb “strengthen yourself.”
- 1 Kings 20:22 tn Heb “know and see.”
- 1 Kings 20:22 tn Heb “at the turning of the year.”
- 1 Kings 20:22 tn Heb “go up against.”
- 1 Kings 20:23 tn Or “servants.”
- 1 Kings 20:25 tn Heb “And you, you muster an army like the one that fell from you, horse like horse and chariot like chariot.”
- 1 Kings 20:25 tn Heb “he listened to their voice and did so.”
- 1 Kings 20:26 tn Heb “at the turning of the year.”
- 1 Kings 20:26 tn Heb “mustered Aram.”
- 1 Kings 20:26 tn Heb “and went up to Aphek for battle with Israel.”
- 1 Kings 20:27 tn The noun translated “small flocks” occurs only here. The common interpretation derives the word from the verbal root חשׂף, “to strip off; to make bare.” In this case the noun refers to something “stripped off” or “made bare.” HALOT 359 s.v. II חשׂף derives the noun from a proposed homonymic verbal root (which occurs only in Ps 29:9) meaning “cause a premature birth.” In this case the derived noun could refer to goats that are undersized because they are born prematurely.
- 1 Kings 20:28 tn Heb “the man of God.”
- 1 Kings 20:30 tn Heb “and the remaining ones fled to Aphek to the city and the wall fell on 27,000 men, the ones who remained.”
- 1 Kings 20:30 tn Heb “and Ben Hadad fled and went into the city, [into] an inner room in an inner room.”
- 1 Kings 20:31 tn Or “servants.”
- 1 Kings 20:31 tn Heb “that the kings of the house of Israel, that kings of kindness [are] they.” Or “merciful” rather than “kind.” The word used here often means “devoted” or “loyal.” Perhaps the idea is that the Israelite kings are willing to make treaties with other kings.
- 1 Kings 20:31 sn Sackcloth was worn as a sign of sorrow and repentance. The precise significance of the ropes on the head is uncertain, but it probably was a sign of submission. These actions were comparable to raising a white flag on the battlefield or throwing in the towel in a boxing match.
- 1 Kings 20:31 tn Heb “go out.”
- 1 Kings 20:32 sn Your servant. By referring to Ben Hadad as Ahab’s servant, they are suggesting that Ahab make him a subject in a vassal treaty arrangement.
- 1 Kings 20:32 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Ahab) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Kings 20:32 sn He is my brother. Ahab’s response indicates that he wants to make a parity treaty and treat Ben Hadad as an equal partner.
- 1 Kings 20:33 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Ahab) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Kings 20:34 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Ben Hadad) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Kings 20:34 tn Heb “streets,” but this must refer to streets set up with stalls for merchants to sell their goods. See HALOT 299 s.v. חוּץ.
- 1 Kings 20:34 tn Heb “I will send you away with a treaty.” The words “Ahab then said” are supplied in the translation. There is nothing in the Hebrew text to indicate that the speaker has changed from Ben Hadad to Ahab. Some suggest adding “and he said” before “I will send you away.” Others prefer to maintain Ben Hadad as the speaker and change the statement to, “Please send me away with a treaty.”
- 1 Kings 20:35 tn Heb “of the sons of the prophets.”
- 1 Kings 20:36 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the prophet) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Kings 20:37 tn Heb “and the man wounded him, wounding and bruising.”
- 1 Kings 20:39 tn Heb “middle.”
- 1 Kings 20:39 tn Heb “man” (also a second time later in this verse).
- 1 Kings 20:39 tn Heb “if being missed, he is missed.” The emphatic infinitive absolute before the finite verbal form lends solemnity to the warning.
- 1 Kings 20:39 tn The Hebrew term כִּכָּר (kikkar, “circle”) refers generally to something that is round. When used of metals it can refer to a disk-shaped weight made of the metal or to a standard unit of weight, generally regarded as a talent. Since the accepted weight for a talent of metal is about 75 pounds, this would have amounted to about 75 pounds of silver.
- 1 Kings 20:39 tn Heb “your life will be in place of his life, or a unit of silver you will pay.”
- 1 Kings 20:40 tn Heb “so [i.e., in accordance with his testimony] is your judgment, you have determined [it].”
- 1 Kings 20:41 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the prophet) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Kings 20:42 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the prophet) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Kings 20:42 tn Heb “Because you sent away the man of my destruction [i.e., that I determined should be destroyed] from [my/your?] hand, your life will be in place of his life, and your people in place of his people.”