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Israel’s Zeal Is Not In Accordance With Knowledge

10 Brothers, my heart’s desire and petition to God for them is for their salvation. For I testify concerning them that they have a zeal for God— but not in-accordance-with knowledge.

For They Are Ignorant of The Source of True Righteousness

For being-ignorant-of the righteousness of God, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, they did not subject themselves to the righteousness of God. For[a] Christ is the end[b] of the Law for[c] righteousness for everyone believing.

The Law Requires Performance; True Righteousness Comes By Faith In Christ

For Moses writes [in Lev 18:5] as to the righteousness of the Law that “The person having done them will live by them”. But the righteousness of faith speaks[d] as follows: “Do not say in your heart, “Who will go up into heaven?”, that is, to bring[e] Christ down, or “who will go down into the abyss?”, that is, to bring[f] Christ up from the dead. But what does it say? “The word is near you, in your mouth and in your heart”, that is, the word of [g] faith which we are proclaiming, that[h] if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord and you believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved. 10 For it is believed with the heart resulting-in righteousness, and it is confessed with the mouth resulting in salvation.

The Scripture Says Faith Leads To Salvation For Both Jew And Greek

11 For the Scripture says [in Isa 28:16] “everyone putting-faith upon Him will not be put-to-shame”. 12 For there is no distinction between both Jew and Greek— for the same Lord is Lord of all, being rich toward all the ones calling-upon Him. 13 For “everyone who calls-upon the name of the Lord will be saved” [Joel 2:32].

This Is Why God Sent Forth His Messengers With The Report About Christ

14 How then[i] may they[j] call-upon the One in Whom they did not believe? And how may they believe the One Whom[k] they did not hear? And how may they hear without one proclaiming? 15 And how may they proclaim if they are not sent-forth?— just as it has been written[l] [in Isa 52:7]: “How beautiful are the feet of the ones announcing-good-news-of good things!” 16 But[m] they did not all obey the good-news, for Isaiah says [in Isa 53:1], “Lord, who put-faith-in our report?” 17 So[n] the faith[o] comes from a report-hearing[p], and the report-hearing through a word[q] about[r] Christ.

But It Is Not As Though Israel Did Not Hear

18 But I say[s]it is not that they did not hear[t], is it ? On the contrary: “Their voice went-out into all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world” [Ps 19:4].

And It Is Not As Though Israel Did Not Know

19 But I say— it is not that Israel did not know[u], is it ? First, Moses says [in Deut 32:21] “I will provoke you to jealousy over what is not a nation. I will provoke you to anger over a nation without-understanding[v]”. 20 And Isaiah is very-bold and says [in Isa 65:1] “I was found by the ones not seeking Me. I became visible[w] to the ones not asking-for Me”. 21 But with-regard-to Israel He says [in Isa 65:2], “I held-out[x] My hands the whole day toward a disobeying[y] and contradicting[z] people”.


  1. Romans 10:4 This sentence summarizes the heart of their ignorance, the relationship between Christ, Law, righteousness, faith, and works.
  2. Romans 10:4 Or, fulfillment, completion, termination, goal.
  3. Romans 10:4 Paul may mean ‘for purposes of righteousness’; or, ‘so that there may be righteousness’.
  4. Romans 10:6 In what follows, Paul uses phrases from Deut 30:11-14 to help describe God’s saving process, explaining his current application of each.
  5. Romans 10:6 The righteousness by faith does not ask who will bring the Messiah down from heaven, because He has already come.
  6. Romans 10:7 Nor does it ask who will bring Him back from the dead, because He has already been raised.
  7. Romans 10:8 That is, about, producing, calling for.
  8. Romans 10:9 This gives the content of the word of faith. Or, because, explaining why the righteousness of faith says this word is near.
  9. Romans 10:14 Paul now traces out the logical implications of the Scriptures just quoted. They imply that the response of faith is made to a message proclaimed to everyone by ones sent forth from God.
  10. Romans 10:14 That is, everyone (v 13), Jew and Greek (v 12). Paul carries out his argument in the universal terms of the prophets, which he is here applying to the case of Israel itself.
  11. Romans 10:14 Or, the One of Whom.
  12. Romans 10:15 Paul quotes Isaiah to prove that God has done His part. He sent forth messengers and they have proclaimed the message.
  13. Romans 10:16 Isaiah predicted this rejection by Israel as well, further proof of Israel’s ignorance.
  14. Romans 10:17 Paul summarizes the process he has deduced from Scripture. Faith in the hearer comes in response to a report about Christ, and this report comes through a message proclaimed by one sent.
  15. Romans 10:17 That is, the faith to call upon the Lord and be saved.
  16. Romans 10:17 This word means both hearing (the act of hearing) and report (the message heard). It is the same word as ‘report’ in v 16, and is related to ‘hear’ in v 18, and is rendered this way to show the connection to both. An obedient-hearing is in view here.
  17. Romans 10:17 Or, message. That is, the word of faith (v 8); the report (v 16); the proclamation (v 15).
  18. Romans 10:17 Or, from, through the word of His messengers.
  19. Romans 10:18 Paul moves on from describing the content of Israel’s ignorance (v 3-17) to their culpability for it.
  20. Romans 10:18 Israel cannot claim to have not heard the message, for the message was taken from Israel to the whole world.
  21. Romans 10:19 Or, understand. The prophets do not leave them this excuse. God told them from the beginning that He would go to the Gentiles and Israel would not believe.
  22. Romans 10:19 Or, a senseless nation, a foolish nation. The nation that knows God and has His word and is trained in spiritual matters will be angered by ones with no such expertise.
  23. Romans 10:20 Or, known.
  24. Romans 10:21 That is, in an imploring, pleading gesture.
  25. Romans 10:21 This word means ‘refusing to believe’.
  26. Romans 10:21 Or, speaking-against, opposing.

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