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19 So[a] the angel swung his sickle over the earth and gathered the grapes from the vineyard[b] of the earth and tossed them into the great[c] winepress of the wrath of God. 20 Then[d] the winepress was stomped[e] outside the city, and blood poured out of the winepress up to the height of horses’ bridles[f] for a distance of almost 200 miles.[g]

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  1. Revelation 14:19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s directions.
  2. Revelation 14:19 tn Or “vine.” BDAG 54 s.v. ἄμπελος a states, “τρυγᾶν τοὺς βότρυας τῆς ἀ. τῆς γῆς to harvest the grapes fr. the vine of the earth (i.e., fr. the earth, symbol. repr. as a grapevine) Rv 14:18f; but may be taking on the meaning of ἀμπελών, as oft. in pap., possibly PHib. 70b, 2 [III bc].” The latter alternative has been followed in the translation (ἀμπελών = “vineyard”).
  3. Revelation 14:19 tn Although the gender of μέγαν (megan, masc.) does not match the gender of ληνόν (lēnon, fem.) it has been taken to modify that word (as do most English translations).
  4. Revelation 14:20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
  5. Revelation 14:20 sn The winepress was stomped. See Isa 63:3, where Messiah does this alone (usually several individuals would join in the process).
  6. Revelation 14:20 tn L&N 6.7 states, “In Re 14:20 the reference to a bit and bridle is merely an indication of measurement, that is to say, the height of the bit and bridle from the ground, and one may reinterpret this measurement as ‘about a meter and a half’ or ‘about five feet.’”
  7. Revelation 14:20 tn Grk “1,600 stades.” A stade was a measure of length about 607 ft (185 m). Thus the distance here would be 184 mi or 296 km.

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