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John, to the seven churches in Asia:[a] grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits before his throne,(A)

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Footnotes

  1. 1:4 Seven churches in Asia: Asia refers to the Roman province of that name in western Asia Minor (modern Turkey); these representative churches are mentioned by name in Rev 1:11, and each is the recipient of a message (Rev 2:1–3:22). Seven is the biblical number suggesting fullness and completeness; thus the seer is writing for the whole church.

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