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You have given them tears as food;[a]
you have made them drink tears by the measure.[b]
You have made our neighbors dislike us,[c]
and our enemies insult us.
O God of Heaven’s Armies,[d] restore us.
Smile on us.[e] Then we will be delivered.[f]

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  1. Psalm 80:5 tn Heb “you have fed them the food of tears.”
  2. Psalm 80:5 tn Heb “[by] the third part [of a measure].” The Hebrew term שָׁלִישׁ (shalish, “third part [of a measure]”) occurs only here and in Isa 40:12.
  3. Psalm 80:6 tn Heb “you have made us an object of contention to our neighbors.”
  4. Psalm 80:7 tn Heb “O God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. See also v. 4 for a similar construction.
  5. Psalm 80:7 tn The idiom “cause your face to shine” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 89:15; Dan 9:17).
  6. Psalm 80:7 tn Heb “cause your face to shine in order that we may be delivered.” After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose/result.

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