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43 Woe to you Pharisees! You love the best seats[a] in the synagogues[b] and elaborate greetings[c] in the marketplaces![d] 44 Woe to you![e] You are like unmarked graves, and people[f] walk over them without realizing it!”[g]

45 One of the experts in religious law[h] answered him, “Teacher, when you say these things you insult[i] us too.”

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  1. Luke 11:43 tn Or “seats of honor.” The term here is plural and is not a reference only to the lead “seat of Moses” in the synagogue, but includes the front seats near the ark.
  2. Luke 11:43 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15.
  3. Luke 11:43 tn Grk “and the greetings.”sn The later Jewish summary of oral tradition, the Talmud, notes elaborate greetings for rabbis. The rebuke here is for pride.
  4. Luke 11:43 sn See the note on marketplace in Luke 7:32.
  5. Luke 11:44 tc Most mss (A [D] W Θ Ψ ƒ13 M it) have “experts in the law and Pharisees, hypocrites” after “you,” but this looks like an assimilation to the parallel in Matt 23:25, 27, 29. The shorter reading has earlier attestation from a variety of reliable mss (P45,75 א B C L ƒ1 33 1241 2542 lat sa).
  6. Luke 11:44 tn Grk “men.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos), referring to both males and females.
  7. Luke 11:44 sn In Judaism to come into contact with the dead or what is associated with them, even without knowing it, makes one unclean (Num 19:11-22; Lev 21:1-3; Mishnah, m. Demai 2:3). To Pharisees, who would have been so sensitive about contracting ceremonial uncleanness, it would have been quite a stinging rebuke to be told they caused it.
  8. Luke 11:45 sn That is, an expert in the interpretation of the Mosaic law. They worked closely with the Pharisees.
  9. Luke 11:45 tn For this term, see Matt 22:6; Luke 18:32; Acts 14:5; 1 Thess 2:2.

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