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Rules About What May Be Eaten

11 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Tell the ·Israelites [L sons/T children of Israel] this: ‘From among the land animals, these are the creatures you may eat: You may eat any animal that has split hoofs completely divided and that chews the cud [C considered a normal land animal].

“‘Some animals only chew the cud or only have split hoofs, and you must not eat them. The camel chews the cud but does not have a split hoof; it is unclean [C in a ritual sense] for you. The rock badger chews the cud but does not have a split hoof; it is unclean for you. The rabbit chews the cud but does not have a split hoof; it is unclean for you. Now the pig has a split hoof that is completely divided, but it does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you. You must not eat the meat from these animals or even touch their dead bodies; they are unclean for you.

“‘Of the animals that live in the sea or in a river, if the animal has fins and scales, you may eat it [C considered a normal aquatic creature]. 10 But whatever lives in the sea or in a river and does not have fins and scales—including the things that ·fill [swarm] the water and all other things that live in it—·you should hate [L they are detestable/abominable]. 11 You must not eat any meat from them or even touch their dead bodies, because ·you should hate them [L they are detestable/abominable to you]. 12 ·You must hate [Detestable/Abominable to you is] any animal in the water that does not have fins and scales.

13 “‘Also, these are the birds you ·are to hate [should find detestable/abominable]. They are ·hateful [detestable; abominable] and should not be eaten. You must not eat eagles, vultures, black vultures, 14 kites, any kind of falcon, 15 any kind of raven, 16 horned owls, screech owls, sea gulls, any kind of hawk, 17 little owls, cormorants, great owls, 18 white owls, desert owls, ospreys, 19 storks, any kind of heron, hoopoes, or bats [C exact identification is sometimes uncertain, but all eat prey or carcasses and/or live in desolate places].

20 “‘Don’t eat insects that have wings and walk on all four feet; they also are ·to be hated [detestable/abominable to you; C their way of moving makes them abnormal insects].

21 “‘But you may eat certain insects that have wings and walk on four feet. You may eat those that have legs with joints above their feet so they can ·jump [leap]. 22 These are the insects you may eat: all kinds of locusts, winged locusts, crickets, and grasshoppers [C exact identification is uncertain]. 23 But all other insects that have wings and walk on four feet ·you are to hate [are detestable/abominable to you]. 24 Those insects will make you unclean [C in a ritual sense], and anyone who touches the dead body of one of these insects will become unclean until evening. 25 Anyone who picks up one of these dead insects must wash his clothes and be unclean until evening.

26 “‘Some animals have split hoofs, but the hoofs are not completely divided; others do not chew the cud. They are unclean for you, and anyone who touches the dead body of one of these animals will become unclean [C in a ritual sense]. 27 Of all the animals that walk on four feet, the animals that walk on their paws are unclean for you. Anyone who touches the dead body of one of these animals will become unclean until evening. 28 Anyone who picks up their dead bodies must wash his clothes and be unclean until evening; these animals are unclean for you.

29 “‘These ·crawling [swarming] animals [C animals that move close to the ground] are unclean for you: moles, rats, all kinds of great lizards, 30 geckos, crocodiles, lizards, sand reptiles, and chameleons [C identification of some of these animals is uncertain]. 31 These ·crawling [swarming] animals are unclean for you [C probably because they eat carrion or touch dead bodies]; anyone who touches their dead bodies will be unclean [C in a ritual sense] until evening.

32 “‘If an unclean animal dies and falls on something, that item will also become unclean [C in a ritual sense]. This includes anything made from wood, cloth, leather, or rough cloth, regardless of its use. Whatever the animal falls on must be washed with water and be unclean until evening; then it will become clean again. 33 If the dead, unclean animal falls into a clay bowl, anything in the bowl will become unclean, and you must break the bowl. 34 If water from the unclean clay bowl gets on any food, that food will become unclean. 35 If any dead, unclean animal falls on something, it becomes unclean. If it is a clay oven or a clay baking pan, it must be broken into pieces. These things will be unclean; they are unclean for you.

36 “‘A spring or ·well that collects water [cistern] will stay clean [C in a ritual sense], but anyone who touches the dead body of any unclean animal will become unclean. 37 If a dead, unclean animal falls on a seed to be planted, that seed is still clean. 38 But if you put water on some seeds and a dead, unclean animal falls on them, they are unclean for you.

39 “‘Also, if an animal which you use for food dies, anyone who touches its body will be unclean [C in a ritual sense] until evening. 40 Anyone who eats meat from this animal’s dead body must wash his clothes and be unclean until evening. Anyone who picks up the animal’s dead body must wash his clothes and be unclean until evening.

41 “‘Every animal that ·crawls [swarms] on the ground is ·to be hated [detestable; abominable]; it must not be eaten. 42 You must not eat any of the animals that ·crawl [L walk] on the ground, including those that ·crawl [walk] on their stomachs, that walk on all four feet, or on many feet. They are ·to be hated [detestable; abominable]. 43 Do not make yourself unclean [C in a ritual sense] by these animals; you must not become unclean by them. 44 I am the Lord your God. ·Keep yourselves holy for me [L Sanctify/Consecrate yourselves and be holy] because I am holy. Don’t ·make yourselves unclean [defile yourselves] with any of these ·crawling [swarming] animals. 45 I am the Lord who brought you out of Egypt to be your God; you must be holy because I am holy.

46 “‘These are the ·teachings [laws; instructions] about all of the cattle, birds, and other animals on earth, as well as the animals ·in the sea [L that moves in the water] and those that ·crawl [swarm] on the ground. 47 These ·teachings [laws; teachings] help people know the difference between unclean animals and clean animals [C in a ritual sense]; they help people know which animals may be eaten and which ones must not be eaten.’”

Clean and Unclean Food(A)

11 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Say to the Israelites: ‘Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat:(B) You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud.

“‘There are some that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof, but you must not eat them.(C) The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you. The hyrax, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you. The rabbit, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you. And the pig,(D) though it has a divided hoof, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you. You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.(E)

“‘Of all the creatures living in the water of the seas and the streams you may eat any that have fins and scales. 10 But all creatures in the seas or streams that do not have fins and scales—whether among all the swarming things or among all the other living creatures in the water—you are to regard as unclean.(F) 11 And since you are to regard them as unclean, you must not eat their meat; you must regard their carcasses as unclean.(G) 12 Anything living in the water that does not have fins and scales is to be regarded as unclean by you.(H)

13 “‘These are the birds you are to regard as unclean and not eat because they are unclean: the eagle,[a] the vulture, the black vulture, 14 the red kite, any kind(I) of black kite, 15 any kind of raven,(J) 16 the horned owl, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk, 17 the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl, 18 the white owl,(K) the desert owl, the osprey, 19 the stork,(L) any kind(M) of heron, the hoopoe and the bat.(N)

20 “‘All flying insects that walk on all fours are to be regarded as unclean by you.(O) 21 There are, however, some flying insects that walk on all fours that you may eat: those that have jointed legs for hopping on the ground. 22 Of these you may eat any kind of locust,(P) katydid, cricket or grasshopper. 23 But all other flying insects that have four legs you are to regard as unclean.

24 “‘You will make yourselves unclean by these;(Q) whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening.(R) 25 Whoever picks up one of their carcasses must wash their clothes,(S) and they will be unclean till evening.(T)

26 “‘Every animal that does not have a divided hoof or that does not chew the cud is unclean for you; whoever touches the carcass of any of them will be unclean. 27 Of all the animals that walk on all fours, those that walk on their paws are unclean for you; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening. 28 Anyone who picks up their carcasses must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.(U) These animals are unclean for you.

29 “‘Of the animals that move along the ground, these are unclean for you:(V) the weasel, the rat,(W) any kind of great lizard, 30 the gecko, the monitor lizard, the wall lizard, the skink and the chameleon. 31 Of all those that move along the ground, these are unclean for you. Whoever touches them when they are dead will be unclean till evening. 32 When one of them dies and falls on something, that article, whatever its use, will be unclean, whether it is made of wood, cloth, hide or sackcloth.(X) Put it in water; it will be unclean till evening, and then it will be clean. 33 If one of them falls into a clay pot, everything in it will be unclean, and you must break the pot.(Y) 34 Any food you are allowed to eat that has come into contact with water from any such pot is unclean, and any liquid that is drunk from such a pot is unclean. 35 Anything that one of their carcasses falls on becomes unclean; an oven or cooking pot must be broken up. They are unclean, and you are to regard them as unclean. 36 A spring, however, or a cistern for collecting water remains clean, but anyone who touches one of these carcasses is unclean. 37 If a carcass falls on any seeds that are to be planted, they remain clean. 38 But if water has been put on the seed and a carcass falls on it, it is unclean for you.

39 “‘If an animal that you are allowed to eat dies,(Z) anyone who touches its carcass(AA) will be unclean till evening. 40 Anyone who eats some of its carcass(AB) must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.(AC) Anyone who picks up the carcass must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.

41 “‘Every creature that moves along the ground is to be regarded as unclean; it is not to be eaten. 42 You are not to eat any creature that moves along the ground, whether it moves on its belly or walks on all fours or on many feet; it is unclean. 43 Do not defile yourselves by any of these creatures.(AD) Do not make yourselves unclean by means of them or be made unclean by them. 44 I am the Lord your God;(AE) consecrate yourselves(AF) and be holy,(AG) because I am holy.(AH) Do not make yourselves unclean by any creature that moves along the ground.(AI) 45 I am the Lord, who brought you up out of Egypt(AJ) to be your God;(AK) therefore be holy, because I am holy.(AL)

46 “‘These are the regulations concerning animals, birds, every living thing that moves about in the water and every creature that moves along the ground. 47 You must distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between living creatures that may be eaten and those that may not be eaten.(AM)’”

Footnotes

  1. Leviticus 11:13 The precise identification of some of the birds, insects and animals in this chapter is uncertain.

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