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13 When Pilate heard these words he brought Jesus outside and sat down on the judgment seat[a] in the place called “The Stone Pavement”[b] (Gabbatha in[c] Aramaic).[d] 14 (Now it was the day of preparation[e] for the Passover, about noon.[f])[g] Pilate[h] said to the Jewish leaders,[i] “Look, here is your king!”

15 Then they[j] shouted out, “Away with him! Away with him![k] Crucify[l] him!” Pilate asked,[m] “Shall I crucify your king?” The high priests replied, “We have no king except Caesar!”

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Footnotes

  1. John 19:13 tn Or “the judge’s seat.”sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bēma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and usually furnished with a seat. It was used by officials in addressing an assembly or making official pronouncements, often of a judicial nature.
  2. John 19:13 sn The precise location of the place called ‘The Stone Pavement’ is still uncertain, although a paved court on the lower level of the Fortress Antonia has been suggested. It is not certain whether it was laid prior to a.d. 135, however.
  3. John 19:13 tn Grk “in Hebrew.”sn The author does not say that Gabbatha is the Aramaic (or Hebrew) translation for the Greek term Λιθόστρωτον (Lithostrōton). He simply points out that in Aramaic (or Hebrew) the place had another name. A number of meanings have been suggested, but the most likely appears to mean “elevated place.” It is possible that this was a term used by the common people for the judgment seat itself, which always stood on a raised platform.
  4. John 19:13 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  5. John 19:14 sn The term day of preparation (παρασκευή, paraskeuē) appears in all the gospels as a description of the day on which Jesus died. It could refer to any Friday as the day of preparation for the Sabbath (Saturday), and this is the way the synoptic gospels use the term (Matt 27:62, Mark 15:42, and Luke 23:54). John, however, specifies in addition that this was not only the day of preparation of the Sabbath, but also the day of preparation of the Passover, so that the Sabbath on the following day was the Passover (cf. 19:31).
  6. John 19:14 tn Grk “about the sixth hour.”sn For John, the time was especially important. When the note concerning the hour, about noon, is connected with the day, the day of preparation for the Passover, it becomes apparent that Jesus was going to die on the cross at the very time that the Passover lambs were being slain in the temple courts. Exod 12:6 required that the Passover lamb be kept alive until the 14th Nisan, the eve of the Passover, and then slaughtered by the head of the household at twilight (Grk “between the two evenings”). By this time the slaughtering was no longer done by the heads of households, but by the priests in the temple courts. But so many lambs were needed for the tens of thousands of pilgrims who came to Jerusalem to celebrate the feast (some estimates run in excess of 100,000 pilgrims) that the slaughter could not be completed during the evening, and so the rabbis redefined “between the two evenings” as beginning at noon, when the sun began to decline toward the horizon. Thus the priests had the entire afternoon of 14th Nisan in which to complete the slaughter of the Passover lambs. According to the Fourth Gospel, this is the time Jesus was dying on the cross.
  7. John 19:14 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  8. John 19:14 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Pilate) has been specified in the translation for clarity, and the conjunction καί (kai, “and”) has not been translated here in keeping with the tendency of contemporary English style to use shorter sentences.
  9. John 19:14 tn Or “the Jewish authorities”; Grk “the Jews.” Here the phrase refers to the Jewish leaders, especially members of the Sanhedrin, and their servants (mentioned specifically as “the chief priests and their servants” in John 19:6). See the note on the phrase “Jewish leaders” in v. 7.
  10. John 19:15 tn Grk “Then these.”
  11. John 19:15 tn The words “with him” (twice) are not in the Greek text. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  12. John 19:15 sn See the note on Crucify in 19:6.
  13. John 19:15 tn Grk “Pilate said to them.” The words “to them” are not translated because it is clear in English who Pilate is addressing.
New English Translation (NET)

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