New English Translation
29 For take note, I am already beginning to bring disaster on the city that I call my own.[a] So how can you possibly avoid being punished?[b] You will not go unpunished. For I am proclaiming war against all who live on the earth. I, the Lord of Heaven’s Armies,[c] affirm it!’[d]
‘Like a lion about to attack,[g] the Lord will roar from the heights of heaven;
from his holy dwelling on high he will roar loudly.
He will roar mightily against his land.[h]
He will shout in triumph, like those stomping juice from the grapes,[i]
against all those who live on the earth.
31 The sounds of battle[j] will resound to the ends of the earth.
For the Lord will bring charges against the nations.[k]
He will pass judgment on all humankind
and will hand the wicked over to be killed in war.’[l]
The Lord so affirms it![m]
- Jeremiah 25:29 tn Heb “which is called by my name.” See translator’s note on 7:10 for support.
- Jeremiah 25:29 tn This is an example of a question without the formal introductory particle following a conjunctive vav introducing an opposition. (See Joüon 2:609 §161.a.) It is also an example of the use of the infinitive before the finite verb in a rhetorical question involving doubt or denial. (See Joüon 2:422-23 §123.f, and compare usage in Gen 37:8.)
- Jeremiah 25:29 tn Heb “Yahweh of Armies.”sn See the study notes on 2:19 and 7:3 for explanation of this extended title.
- Jeremiah 25:29 tn Heb “Oracle of Yahweh of Armies.”
- Jeremiah 25:30 tn The word “Jeremiah” is not in the text. It is supplied in the translation to make clear who is being addressed.
- Jeremiah 25:30 tn Heb “Prophesy against them all these words.”
- Jeremiah 25:30 tn The words “like a lion about to attack” are not in the text but are implicit in the metaphor. The explicit comparison of the Lord to a lion is made at the end of the passage in v. 38. The words are supplied in the translation here for clarity.sn For the metaphor of the Lord going forth against his enemies like an attacking lion, see Jer 49:19; 50:44; and Isa 31:4, in all of which the Lord comes against the nations in defense of his people. In Hos 5:14 the metaphor is turned against his own people. The figure of a lion ravaging people has already been used in Jer 4:7 of the enemy from the north (Babylon).
- Jeremiah 25:30 sn The word used here (Heb “his habitation”) refers to the land of Canaan, which the Lord chose to make his earthly dwelling (Exod 15:13) and which was the dwelling place of his chosen people (Jer 10:25; Isa 32:18). Judgment would begin at the “house of God” (v. 29; 1 Pet 4:17) but would extend to the rest of the earth (v. 29).
- Jeremiah 25:30 sn The metaphor shifts from God as a lion to God as a mighty warrior (Jer 20:11; Isa 42:13; Zeph 3:17) shouting in triumph over his foes. Within the metaphor is a simile where the warrior is compared to a person stomping on grapes to remove the juice from them in the making of wine. The figure will be invoked later in a battle scene where the sounds of joy in the grape harvest are replaced by the sounds of joy of the enemy soldiers (Jer 48:33). The picture is drawn in more gory detail in Isa 63:1-6.
- Jeremiah 25:31 tn For the use of this word see Amos 2:2; Hos 10:14; Ps 74:23. See also the usage in Isa 66:6, which is very similar to the metaphorical usage here.
- Jeremiah 25:31 tn Heb “the Lord has a lawsuit against the nations.” For usage with “lawsuit” see Hos 4:1 and Mic 6:2, and compare use of the related verb in Jer 2:9 and 12:1.
- Jeremiah 25:31 tn Heb “give the wicked over to the sword.”sn There is undoubtedly a deliberate allusion here to the “wars” (Heb “sword”) that the Lord had said he would send raging through the nations (vv. 16, 27), and to the “war” (Heb “sword”) that he is proclaiming against them (v. 29).
- Jeremiah 25:31 tn Heb “Oracle of the Lord.”