New American Bible (Revised Edition)
Infidelity of Israel[a]
1 Ephraim has surrounded me with lies,
the house of Israel, with deceit;
Judah still wanders about with gods,
and is faithful to holy ones.[b]
2 [c]Ephraim shepherds the wind,
and pursues the east wind all day long.
He multiplies lies and violence:
They make a covenant with Assyria,
and oil is carried to Egypt.
3 The Lord has a dispute with Judah,
and will punish Jacob[d] for his conduct,
and repay him for his deeds.
- 12:1–15 This chapter draws a parallel between the history of Israel and events in the life of Jacob-Israel, the ancestor.
- 12:1 An attack on the idolatry of both kingdoms, Israel and Judah. Holy ones: subordinate gods, members of the divine council.
- 12:2 Hosea frequently condemns the alliances with Assyria and Egypt, the two world powers (7:8–16).
- 12:3 Jacob: whose name was changed to Israel (Gn 35:10).