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10 The primary regions[a] of his kingdom were Babel,[b] Erech,[c] Akkad,[d] and Calneh[e] in the land of Shinar.[f] 11 From that land he went[g] to Assyria,[h] where he built Nineveh,[i] Rehoboth Ir,[j] Calah,[k] 12 and Resen, which is between Nineveh and the great city Calah.[l]

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  1. Genesis 10:10 tn Heb “beginning.” E. A. Speiser, Genesis (AB), 67, suggests “mainstays,” citing Jer 49:35 as another text where the Hebrew noun is so used.
  2. Genesis 10:10 tn Or “Babylon.”
  3. Genesis 10:10 sn Erech (ancient Uruk, modern Warka), one of the most ancient civilizations, was located southeast of Babylon.
  4. Genesis 10:10 sn Akkad, or ancient Agade, was associated with Sargon and located north of Babylon.
  5. Genesis 10:10 tn No such place is known in Shinar (i.e., Babylonia). Therefore some have translated the Hebrew term כַלְנֵה (khalneh) as “all of them,” referring to the three previous names (cf. NRSV).
  6. Genesis 10:10 sn Shinar is another name for Babylonia.
  7. Genesis 10:11 tn The subject of the verb translated “went” is probably still Nimrod. However, it has also been interpreted that “Ashur went,” referring to a derivative power.
  8. Genesis 10:11 tn Heb “Asshur.”
  9. Genesis 10:11 sn Nineveh was an ancient Assyrian city situated on the Tigris River.
  10. Genesis 10:11 sn The name Rehoboth Ir means “and broad streets of a city,” perhaps referring to a suburb of Nineveh.
  11. Genesis 10:11 sn Calah (modern Nimrud) was located 20 miles north of Nineveh.
  12. Genesis 10:12 tn Heb “and Resen between Nineveh and Calah; it [i.e., Calah] is the great city.”

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