New King James Version
Sons and Heirs Through Christ
4 Now I say that the heir, as long as he is a child, does not differ at all from a slave, though he is master of all, 2 but is under guardians and stewards until the time appointed by the father. 3 Even so we, when we were children, (A)were in bondage under the elements of the world. 4 But (B)when the fullness of the time had come, God sent forth His Son, (C)born[a] (D)of a woman, (E)born under the law, 5 (F)to redeem those who were under the law, (G)that we might receive the adoption as sons.
6 And because you are sons, God has sent forth (H)the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying out, [b]“Abba, Father!” 7 Therefore you are no longer a slave but a son, (I)and if a son, then an heir [c]of God [d]through Christ.
Fears for the Church
8 But then, indeed, (J)when you did not know God, (K)you served those which by nature are not gods. 9 But now (L)after you have known God, or rather are known by God, (M)how is it that you turn again to (N)the weak and beggarly elements, to which you desire again to be in bondage? 10 (O)You observe days and months and seasons and years. 11 I am afraid for you, (P)lest I have labored for you in vain.
12 Brethren, I urge you to become like me, for I became like you. (Q)You have not injured me at all. 13 You know that (R)because of physical infirmity I preached the gospel to you at the first. 14 And my trial which was in my flesh you did not despise or reject, but you received me (S)as an [e]angel of God, (T)even as Christ Jesus. 15 [f]What then was the blessing you enjoyed? For I bear you witness that, if possible, you would have plucked out your own eyes and given them to me. 16 Have I therefore become your enemy because I tell you the truth?
17 They (U)zealously court you, but for no good; yes, they want to exclude you, that you may be zealous for them. 18 But it is good to be zealous in a good thing always, and not only when I am present with you. 19 (V)My little children, for whom I labor in birth again until Christ is formed in you, 20 I would like to be present with you now and to change my tone; for I have doubts about you.
21 Tell me, you who desire to be under the law, do you not hear the law? 22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons: (X)the one by a bondwoman, (Y)the other by a freewoman. 23 But he who was of the bondwoman (Z)was born according to the flesh, (AA)and he of the freewoman through promise, 24 which things are symbolic. For these are [g]the two covenants: the one from Mount (AB)Sinai which gives birth to bondage, which is Hagar— 25 for this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia, and corresponds to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children— 26 but the (AC)Jerusalem above is free, which is the mother of us all. 27 For it is written:
(AD)“Rejoice, O barren,
You who do not bear!
Break forth and shout,
You who are not in labor!
For the desolate has many more children
Than she who has a husband.”
28 Now (AE)we, brethren, as Isaac was, are (AF)children of promise. 29 But, as (AG)he who was born according to the flesh then persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, (AH)even so it is now. 30 Nevertheless what does (AI)the Scripture say? (AJ)“Cast out the bondwoman and her son, for (AK)the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman.” 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman but of the free.
New International Version
4 What I am saying is that as long as an heir is underage, he is no different from a slave, although he owns the whole estate. 2 The heir is subject to guardians and trustees until the time set by his father. 3 So also, when we were underage, we were in slavery(A) under the elemental spiritual forces[a] of the world.(B) 4 But when the set time had fully come,(C) God sent his Son,(D) born of a woman,(E) born under the law,(F) 5 to redeem(G) those under the law, that we might receive adoption(H) to sonship.[b](I) 6 Because you are his sons, God sent the Spirit of his Son(J) into our hearts,(K) the Spirit who calls out, “Abba,[c] Father.”(L) 7 So you are no longer a slave, but God’s child; and since you are his child, God has made you also an heir.(M)
Paul’s Concern for the Galatians
8 Formerly, when you did not know God,(N) you were slaves(O) to those who by nature are not gods.(P) 9 But now that you know God—or rather are known by God(Q)—how is it that you are turning back to those weak and miserable forces[d]? Do you wish to be enslaved(R) by them all over again?(S) 10 You are observing special days and months and seasons and years!(T) 11 I fear for you, that somehow I have wasted my efforts on you.(U)
12 I plead with you, brothers and sisters,(V) become like me, for I became like you. You did me no wrong. 13 As you know, it was because of an illness(W) that I first preached the gospel to you, 14 and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself.(X) 15 Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me. 16 Have I now become your enemy by telling you the truth?(Y)
17 Those people are zealous to win you over, but for no good. What they want is to alienate you from us, so that you may have zeal for them.(Z) 18 It is fine to be zealous, provided the purpose is good, and to be so always, not just when I am with you.(AA) 19 My dear children,(AB) for whom I am again in the pains of childbirth until Christ is formed in you,(AC) 20 how I wish I could be with you now and change my tone, because I am perplexed about you!
Hagar and Sarah
21 Tell me, you who want to be under the law,(AD) are you not aware of what the law says? 22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the slave woman(AE) and the other by the free woman.(AF) 23 His son by the slave woman was born according to the flesh,(AG) but his son by the free woman was born as the result of a divine promise.(AH)
24 These things are being taken figuratively: The women represent two covenants. One covenant is from Mount Sinai and bears children who are to be slaves: This is Hagar. 25 Now Hagar stands for Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present city of Jerusalem, because she is in slavery with her children. 26 But the Jerusalem that is above(AI) is free, and she is our mother. 27 For it is written:
28 Now you, brothers and sisters, like Isaac, are children of promise.(AK) 29 At that time the son born according to the flesh(AL) persecuted the son born by the power of the Spirit.(AM) It is the same now. 30 But what does Scripture say? “Get rid of the slave woman and her son, for the slave woman’s son will never share in the inheritance with the free woman’s son.”[f](AN) 31 Therefore, brothers and sisters, we are not children of the slave woman,(AO) but of the free woman.(AP)
- Galatians 4:3 Or under the basic principles
- Galatians 4:5 The Greek word for adoption to sonship is a legal term referring to the full legal standing of an adopted male heir in Roman culture.
- Galatians 4:6 Aramaic for Father
- Galatians 4:9 Or principles
- Galatians 4:27 Isaiah 54:1
- Galatians 4:30 Gen. 21:10