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I. Address

Chapter 1

Greeting.[a] (A)Paul, an apostle[b] not from human beings nor through a human being but through Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised him from the dead,(B) [c]and all the brothers who are with me, to the churches of Galatia:

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  1. 1:1–5 See note on Rom 1:1–7, concerning the greeting.
  2. 1:1 Apostle: because of attacks on his authority in Galatia, Paul defends his apostleship. He is not an apostle commissioned by a congregation (Phil 2:25; 2 Cor 8:23) or even by prophets (1 Tm 1:18; 4:14) but through Jesus Christ and God the Father.
  3. 1:2 All the brothers: fellow believers in Christ, male and female; cf. Gal 3:27–28. Paul usually mentions the co-sender(s) at the start of a letter, but the use of all is unique, adding weight to the letter. Galatia: central Turkey more likely than the Roman province of Galatia; see Introduction.

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