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Pharaoh as a Felled Cedar of Lebanon

31 In the eleventh year,(A) in the third month on the first day, the word of the Lord came to me:(B) “Son of man, say to Pharaoh king of Egypt and to his hordes:

“‘Who can be compared with you in majesty?
Consider Assyria,(C) once a cedar in Lebanon,(D)
    with beautiful branches overshadowing the forest;
it towered on high,
    its top above the thick foliage.(E)
The waters(F) nourished it,
    deep springs made it grow tall;
their streams flowed
    all around its base
and sent their channels
    to all the trees of the field.(G)
So it towered higher(H)
    than all the trees of the field;
its boughs increased
    and its branches grew long,
    spreading because of abundant waters.(I)
All the birds of the sky
    nested in its boughs,
all the animals of the wild
    gave birth(J) under its branches;
all the great nations
    lived in its shade.(K)
It was majestic in beauty,
    with its spreading boughs,
for its roots went down
    to abundant waters.(L)
The cedars(M) in the garden of God
    could not rival it,
nor could the junipers
    equal its boughs,
nor could the plane trees(N)
    compare with its branches—
no tree in the garden of God
    could match its beauty.(O)
I made it beautiful
    with abundant branches,
the envy of all the trees of Eden(P)
    in the garden of God.(Q)

10 “‘Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: Because the great cedar towered over the thick foliage, and because it was proud(R) of its height, 11 I gave it into the hands of the ruler of the nations, for him to deal with according to its wickedness. I cast it aside,(S) 12 and the most ruthless of foreign nations(T) cut it down and left it. Its boughs fell on the mountains and in all the valleys;(U) its branches lay broken in all the ravines of the land. All the nations of the earth came out from under its shade and left it.(V) 13 All the birds settled on the fallen tree, and all the wild animals lived among its branches.(W) 14 Therefore no other trees by the waters are ever to tower proudly on high, lifting their tops above the thick foliage. No other trees so well-watered are ever to reach such a height; they are all destined(X) for death,(Y) for the earth below, among mortals who go down to the realm of the dead.(Z)

15 “‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: On the day it was brought down to the realm of the dead I covered the deep springs with mourning for it; I held back its streams, and its abundant waters were restrained. Because of it I clothed Lebanon with gloom, and all the trees of the field withered away.(AA) 16 I made the nations tremble(AB) at the sound of its fall when I brought it down to the realm of the dead to be with those who go down to the pit. Then all the trees(AC) of Eden,(AD) the choicest and best of Lebanon, the well-watered trees, were consoled(AE) in the earth below.(AF) 17 They too, like the great cedar, had gone down to the realm of the dead, to those killed by the sword,(AG) along with the armed men who lived in its shade among the nations.

18 “‘Which of the trees of Eden can be compared with you in splendor and majesty? Yet you, too, will be brought down with the trees of Eden to the earth below; you will lie among the uncircumcised,(AH) with those killed by the sword.

“‘This is Pharaoh and all his hordes, declares the Sovereign Lord.’”

31 And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the third month, in the first day of the month, that the word of the Lord came unto me, saying,

Son of man, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multitude; Whom art thou like in thy greatness?

Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, and of an high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs.

The waters made him great, the deep set him up on high with her rivers running round about his plants, and sent her little rivers unto all the trees of the field.

Therefore his height was exalted above all the trees of the field, and his boughs were multiplied, and his branches became long because of the multitude of waters, when he shot forth.

All the fowls of heaven made their nests in his boughs, and under his branches did all the beasts of the field bring forth their young, and under his shadow dwelt all great nations.

Thus was he fair in his greatness, in the length of his branches: for his root was by great waters.

The cedars in the garden of God could not hide him: the fir trees were not like his boughs, and the chestnut trees were not like his branches; nor any tree in the garden of God was like unto him in his beauty.

I have made him fair by the multitude of his branches: so that all the trees of Eden, that were in the garden of God, envied him.

10 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; Because thou hast lifted up thyself in height, and he hath shot up his top among the thick boughs, and his heart is lifted up in his height;

11 I have therefore delivered him into the hand of the mighty one of the heathen; he shall surely deal with him: I have driven him out for his wickedness.

12 And strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off, and have left him: upon the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken by all the rivers of the land; and all the people of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him.

13 Upon his ruin shall all the fowls of the heaven remain, and all the beasts of the field shall be upon his branches:

14 To the end that none of all the trees by the waters exalt themselves for their height, neither shoot up their top among the thick boughs, neither their trees stand up in their height, all that drink water: for they are all delivered unto death, to the nether parts of the earth, in the midst of the children of men, with them that go down to the pit.

15 Thus saith the Lord God; In the day when he went down to the grave I caused a mourning: I covered the deep for him, and I restrained the floods thereof, and the great waters were stayed: and I caused Lebanon to mourn for him, and all the trees of the field fainted for him.

16 I made the nations to shake at the sound of his fall, when I cast him down to hell with them that descend into the pit: and all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, shall be comforted in the nether parts of the earth.

17 They also went down into hell with him unto them that be slain with the sword; and they that were his arm, that dwelt under his shadow in the midst of the heathen.

18 To whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? yet shalt thou be brought down with the trees of Eden unto the nether parts of the earth: thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that be slain by the sword. This is Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the Lord God.

Egypt Cut Down Like a Great Tree(A)

31 Now it came to pass in the (B)eleventh year, in the third month, on the first day of the month, that the word of the Lord came to me, saying, “Son of man, say to Pharaoh king of Egypt and to his multitude:

(C)‘Whom are you like in your greatness?
(D)Indeed Assyria was a cedar in Lebanon,
With fine branches that shaded the forest,
And of high stature;
And its top was among the thick boughs.
(E)The waters made it grow;
Underground waters gave it height,
With their rivers running around the place where it was planted,
And sent out [a]rivulets to all the trees of the field.

‘Therefore (F)its height was exalted above all the trees of the field;
Its boughs were multiplied,
And its branches became long because of the abundance of water,
As it sent them out.
All the (G)birds of the heavens made their nests in its boughs;
Under its branches all the beasts of the field brought forth their young;
And in its shadow all great nations [b]made their home.

‘Thus it was beautiful in greatness and in the length of its branches,
Because its roots reached to abundant waters.
The cedars in the (H)garden of God could not hide it;
The fir trees were not like its boughs,
And the [c]chestnut trees were not like its branches;
No tree in the garden of God was like it in beauty.
I made it beautiful with a multitude of branches,
So that all the trees of Eden envied it,
That were in the garden of God.’

10 “Therefore thus says the Lord God: ‘Because you have increased in height, and it set its top among the thick boughs, and (I)its heart was [d]lifted up in its height, 11 therefore I will deliver it into the hand of the (J)mighty one of the nations, and he shall surely deal with it; I have driven it out for its wickedness. 12 And aliens, (K)the most terrible of the nations, have cut it down and left it; its branches have fallen (L)on the mountains and in all the valleys; its boughs lie (M)broken by all the rivers of the land; and all the peoples of the earth have gone from under its shadow and left it.

13 ‘On (N)its ruin will remain all the birds of the heavens,
And all the beasts of the field will come to its branches—

14 So that no trees by the waters may ever again exalt themselves for their height, nor set their tops among the thick boughs, that no tree which drinks water may ever be high enough to reach up to them.

‘For (O)they have all been delivered to death,
(P)To the depths of the earth,
Among the children of men who go down to the Pit.’

15 “Thus says the Lord God: ‘In the day when it (Q)went down to [e]hell, I caused mourning. I covered the deep because of it. I restrained its rivers, and the great waters were held back. I caused Lebanon to [f]mourn for it, and all the trees of the field wilted because of it. 16 I made the nations (R)shake at the sound of its fall, when I (S)cast it down to [g]hell together with those who descend into the Pit; and (T)all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, (U)were comforted in the depths of the earth. 17 They also went down to hell with it, with those slain by the sword; and those who were its strong arm (V)dwelt in its shadows among the nations.

18 (W)‘To which of the trees in Eden will you then be likened in glory and greatness? Yet you shall be brought down with the trees of Eden to the depths of the earth; (X)you shall lie in the midst of the uncircumcised, with those slain by the sword. This is Pharaoh and all his multitude,’ says the Lord God.”

Footnotes

  1. Ezekiel 31:4 Or channels
  2. Ezekiel 31:6 Lit. dwelled
  3. Ezekiel 31:8 Or plane, Heb. armon
  4. Ezekiel 31:10 Proud
  5. Ezekiel 31:15 Or Sheol
  6. Ezekiel 31:15 Lit. be darkened
  7. Ezekiel 31:16 Or Sheol

Pharaoh to Be Slain

31 (A)In the eleventh year, in the third month, on the first day of the month, the word of the Lord came to me: (B)“Son of man, say to Pharaoh king of Egypt and to (C)his multitude:

(D)“Whom are you like in your greatness?
    Behold, (E)Assyria was a (F)cedar in (G)Lebanon,
with beautiful branches and (H)forest shade,
    (I)and of towering height,
    its top among the clouds.[a]
The waters nourished it;
    the deep made it grow tall,
making (J)its rivers flow
    around the place of its planting,
sending forth its streams
    to all the trees of the field.
So (K)it towered high
    above all the trees of the field;
its boughs grew large
    and its branches long
    from (L)abundant water in its shoots.
(M)All the birds of the heavens
    made their nests in its boughs;
under its branches all the beasts of the field
    gave birth to their young,
and under its shadow
    lived all great nations.
It was (N)beautiful in its greatness,
    in the length of its branches;
(O)for its roots went down
    to abundant waters.
(P)The cedars (Q)in the garden of God could not rival it,
    nor the fir trees equal its boughs;
neither were the plane trees
    like its branches;
no tree (R)in the garden of God
    was its equal in beauty.
I made it beautiful
    in the mass of its branches,
and all the trees of (S)Eden envied it,
    that were in the garden of God.

10 “Therefore thus says the Lord God: Because (T)it[b] towered high and set its top among the clouds,[c] and (U)its heart was proud of its height, 11 I will give it into the hand of a mighty one of the nations. He shall surely deal with it as its wickedness deserves. I have cast it out. 12 (V)Foreigners, (W)the most ruthless of nations, have cut it down and left it. (X)On the mountains and in all the valleys its branches have fallen, and its boughs have been broken in all (Y)the ravines of the land, and (Z)all the peoples of the earth have gone away from its shadow and left it. 13 (AA)On its fallen trunk dwell all the birds of the heavens, and on its branches are all the beasts of the field. 14 (AB)All this is in order that no trees by the waters may grow to towering height or set their tops among the clouds,[d] and that no trees that drink water may reach up to them in height. For they are all given over to death, (AC)to the world (AD)below, among the children of man,[e] with those who go down to the pit.

15 “Thus says the Lord God: On the day (AE)the cedar[f] went down to Sheol I caused mourning; I closed the deep over it, and restrained its rivers, and many waters were stopped. I clothed Lebanon in gloom for it, and all the trees of the field fainted because of it. 16 (AF)I made the nations quake at the sound of its fall, (AG)when I cast it down to Sheol with those who go down to the pit. (AH)And all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, (AI)were comforted in the world below. 17 They also went down to Sheol with it, (AJ)to those who are slain by the sword; yes, (AK)those who were its arm, (AL)who lived under its shadow among the nations.

18 (AM)“Whom are you thus like in glory and in greatness (AN)among the trees of Eden? (AO)You shall be brought down with (AP)the trees of Eden to the world below. (AQ)You shall lie among the uncircumcised, (AR)with those who are slain by the sword.

(AS)“This is Pharaoh and all his multitude, declares the Lord God.”

Footnotes

  1. Ezekiel 31:3 Or its top went through the thick boughs
  2. Ezekiel 31:10 Syriac, Vulgate; Hebrew you
  3. Ezekiel 31:10 Or its top through the thick boughs
  4. Ezekiel 31:14 Or their tops through the thick boughs
  5. Ezekiel 31:14 Or of Adam
  6. Ezekiel 31:15 Hebrew it

Pharaoh Warned of Assyria’s Fate

31 In the (A)eleventh year, in the third month, on the first of the month, the word of the Lord came to me saying, “Son of man, say to Pharaoh king of Egypt and to his (B)hordes,

‘Whom are you like in your greatness?
‘Behold, Assyria was a (C)cedar in Lebanon
With beautiful branches and forest shade,
And [a](D)very high,
And its top was among the [b]clouds.
‘The (E)waters made it grow, the [c]deep made it high.
With its rivers it continually [d]extended all around its planting place,
And sent out its channels to all the trees of the field.
‘Therefore (F)its height was loftier than all the trees of the field
And its boughs became many and its branches long
Because of (G)many waters [e]as it spread them out.
‘All the (H)birds of the heavens nested in its boughs,
And under its branches all the beasts of the field gave birth,
And all great nations lived under its shade.
‘So it was beautiful in its greatness, in the length of its branches;
For its [f]roots extended to many waters.
‘The (I)cedars in (J)God’s garden [g]could not match it;
The [h]cypresses [i]could not compare with its boughs,
And the plane trees [j]could not match its branches.
No tree in (K)God’s garden [k]could compare with it in its beauty.
‘I made it beautiful with the multitude of its branches,
And all the trees of (L)Eden, which were in the (M)garden of God, were jealous of it.

10 ‘Therefore thus says the Lord [l]God, “Because [m]it is high in stature and has set its top among the [n]clouds, and its (N)heart is haughty in its loftiness, 11 therefore I will give it into the hand of a [o](O)despot of the nations; he will thoroughly deal with it. According to its wickedness I have (P)driven it away. 12 (Q)Alien (R)tyrants of the nations have cut it down and left it; on the (S)mountains and in all the valleys its branches have fallen and its boughs have been broken in all the ravines of the land. And all the peoples of the earth have (T)gone down from its shade and left it. 13 On its ruin all the (U)birds of the heavens will dwell, and all the beasts of the field will be on its fallen branches 14 so that all the trees by the waters may not be exalted in their stature, nor set their top among the [p]clouds, nor their [q]well-watered mighty ones stand erect in their height. For they have all been given over to death, to the (V)earth beneath, among the sons of men, with those who go down to the pit.”

15 ‘Thus says the Lord God, “On the day when it went down to Sheol I (W)caused lamentations; I closed the [r]deep over it and held back its rivers. And its many waters were stopped up, and I made Lebanon [s]mourn for it, and all the trees of the field wilted away on account of it. 16 I made the nations (X)quake at the sound of its fall when I made it (Y)go down to Sheol with those who go down to the pit; and all the [t]well-watered trees of Eden, the choicest and best of (Z)Lebanon, were (AA)comforted in the earth beneath. 17 They also (AB)went down with it to Sheol to those who were (AC)slain by the sword; and those who were its [u]strength lived (AD)under its shade among the nations.

18 “To which among the trees of Eden are you thus [v]equal in glory and greatness? Yet you will be brought down with the trees of Eden to the earth beneath; you will lie in the midst of the (AE)uncircumcised, with those who were slain by the sword. (AF)So is Pharaoh and all his hordes!”’ declares the Lord God.”

Footnotes

  1. Ezekiel 31:3 Lit high of stature
  2. Ezekiel 31:3 So Gr; M.T. thick boughs
  3. Ezekiel 31:4 I.e. subterranean waters
  4. Ezekiel 31:4 Lit was going
  5. Ezekiel 31:5 Lit in its sending forth
  6. Ezekiel 31:7 Lit root was
  7. Ezekiel 31:8 Lit did
  8. Ezekiel 31:8 Or Phoenician junipers
  9. Ezekiel 31:8 Lit did
  10. Ezekiel 31:8 Lit were not like
  11. Ezekiel 31:8 Lit did
  12. Ezekiel 31:10 Heb YHWH, usually rendered Lord, and so throughout the ch
  13. Ezekiel 31:10 Lit you are
  14. Ezekiel 31:10 Or thick boughs
  15. Ezekiel 31:11 Or mighty one
  16. Ezekiel 31:14 Or thick boughs
  17. Ezekiel 31:14 Lit drinkers of water
  18. Ezekiel 31:15 I.e. subterranean waters
  19. Ezekiel 31:15 Lit be darkened
  20. Ezekiel 31:16 Lit drinkers of water
  21. Ezekiel 31:17 Lit arm
  22. Ezekiel 31:18 Lit like

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