New English Translation
Daniel has a Vision of Four Animals Coming up from the Sea
7 In the first[a] year of King Belshazzar of Babylon, Daniel had[b] a dream filled with visions[c] while he was lying on his bed. Then he wrote down the dream in summary fashion.[d] 2 Daniel explained:[e] “I was watching in my vision during the night as[f] the four winds of the sky[g] were stirring up the great sea.[h] 3 Then four large beasts came up from the sea; they were different from one another.
4 “The first one was like a lion with eagles’ wings. As I watched, its wings were pulled off and it was lifted up from the ground. It was made to stand on two feet like a human being, and a human mind[i] was given to it.[j]
7 “After these things, as I was watching in the night visions[s] a fourth beast appeared—one dreadful, terrible, and very strong.[t] It had two large rows[u] of iron teeth. It devoured and crushed, and anything that was left it trampled with its feet. It was different from all the beasts that came before it, and it had ten horns.
8 “As I was contemplating the horns, another horn—a small one—came up between them, and three of the former horns were torn out by the roots to make room for it.[v] This horn had eyes resembling human eyes and a mouth speaking arrogant[w] things.
9 “While I was watching,
thrones were set up,
and the Ancient of Days[x] took his seat.
His attire was white like snow;
the hair of his head was like lamb’s[y] wool.
His throne was ablaze with fire
and its wheels were all aflame.[z]
10 A river of fire was streaming forth
and proceeding from his presence.
Many thousands were ministering to him;
many tens of thousands stood ready to serve him.[aa]
The court convened[ab]
and the books were opened.
11 “Then I kept on watching because of the arrogant words of the horn that was speaking. I was watching[ac] until the beast was killed and its body destroyed and thrown into[ad] the flaming fire. 12 As for the rest of the beasts, their ruling authority had already been removed, though they were permitted to go on living[ae] for a time and a season.
13 “I was watching in the night visions,
And with[af] the clouds of the sky[ag]
one like a son of man[ah] was approaching.
He went up to the Ancient of Days
and was escorted[ai] before him.
14 To him was given ruling authority, honor, and sovereignty.
All peoples, nations, and language groups were serving[aj] him.
His authority is eternal and will not pass away.[ak]
His kingdom will not be destroyed.[al]
An Angel Interprets Daniel’s Vision
15 “As for me, Daniel, my spirit was distressed,[am] and the visions of my mind[an] were alarming me. 16 I approached one of those standing nearby and asked him about the meaning[ao] of all this. So he spoke with me and revealed[ap] to me the interpretation of the vision:[aq] 17 ‘These large beasts, which are four in number, represent four kings who will arise from the earth. 18 The holy ones[ar] of the Most High will receive the kingdom and will take possession of the kingdom forever and ever.’
19 “Then I wanted to know the meaning[as] of the fourth beast, which was different from all the others. It was very dreadful, with two rows of iron teeth and bronze claws, and it devoured, crushed, and trampled anything that was left with its feet. 20 I also wanted to know[at] the meaning of the ten horns on its head, and of that other horn that came up and before which three others fell. This was the horn that had eyes[au] and a mouth speaking arrogant things, whose appearance was more formidable than the others.[av] 21 While I was watching, that horn began to wage war against the holy ones and was defeating[aw] them, 22 until the Ancient of Days arrived and judgment was rendered[ax] in favor of the holy ones of the Most High. Then the time came for the holy ones to take possession of the kingdom.
23 “This is what he told me:[ay]
‘The fourth beast means that there will be a fourth kingdom on earth
that will differ from all the other kingdoms.
It will devour all the earth
and will trample and crush it.
24 The ten horns mean that ten kings
will arise from that kingdom.
Another king will arise after them,
but he will be different from the earlier ones.
He will humiliate[az] three kings.
25 He will speak words against the Most High.
He will harass[ba] the holy ones of the Most High continually.
His intention will be[bb] to change times established by law.[bc]
The holy ones will be delivered into his hand
for a time, times,[bd] and half a time.
26 But the court will convene,[be] and his ruling authority will be removed—
destroyed and abolished forever!
27 Then the kingdom, authority,
and greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven
will be delivered to the people of the holy ones[bf] of the Most High.
His kingdom is an eternal kingdom;
all authorities will serve him and obey him.’
- Daniel 7:1 sn The first year of Belshazzar’s reign would have been ca. 553 b.c. Daniel would have been approximately 67 years old at the time of this vision.
- Daniel 7:1 tn Aram “saw.”
- Daniel 7:1 tn Aram “and visions of his head.” The Aramaic is difficult here. Some scholars add a verb thought to be missing (e.g., “the visions of his head [were alarming him]”), but there is no external evidence to support such a decision, and the awkwardness of the text at this point may be original.
- Daniel 7:1 tn Aram “head of words.” The phrase is absent in Theodotion. Cf. NIV’s “the substance of his dream.”
- Daniel 7:2 tn Aram “answered and said.”
- Daniel 7:2 tn Aram “and behold.”
- Daniel 7:2 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.
- Daniel 7:2 sn The referent of the great sea is unclear. The common view that the expression refers to the Mediterranean Sea is conjectural.
- Daniel 7:4 tn Aram “heart of a man.”
- Daniel 7:4 sn The identity of the first animal, derived from v. 17 and the parallels in chap. 2, is Babylon. The reference to the plucking of its wings is probably a reference to the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s insanity (cf. chap. 4). The latter part of v. 4 then describes the restoration of Nebuchadnezzar. The other animals have traditionally been understood to represent respectively Media-Persia, Greece, and Rome, although most of modern scholarship identifies them as Media, Persia, and Greece. For a biblical parallel to the mention of lion, bear, and leopard together, see Hos 13:7-8.
- Daniel 7:5 tn Aram “and behold.”
- Daniel 7:5 sn The three ribs held securely in the mouth of the bear, perhaps representing Media-Persia, apparently symbolize military conquest, but the exact identity of the “ribs” is not clear. Possibly it is a reference to the Persian conquest of Lydia, Egypt, and Babylonia.
- Daniel 7:5 tc The LXX lacks the phrase “between its teeth.”
- Daniel 7:5 tn Aram “and thus they were saying to it.”
- Daniel 7:6 tn Aram “this,” as also in v. 7.
- Daniel 7:6 tn Aram “and behold, another one.”
- Daniel 7:6 tn Or “sides.”
- Daniel 7:6 sn If the third animal is Greece, the most likely identification of these four heads is the fourfold division of the empire of Alexander the Great following his death (see note on Dan 8:8).
- Daniel 7:7 tn The Aramaic text has also “and behold,” as also in vv. 8, 13.
- Daniel 7:7 sn The fourth animal differs from the others in that it is nondescript. Apparently it was so fearsome that Daniel could find nothing with which to compare it. Attempts to identify this animal as an elephant or other known creature are conjectural.
- Daniel 7:7 tn The Aramaic word for “teeth” is dual rather than plural, suggesting two rows of teeth.
- Daniel 7:8 tn Aram “were uprooted from before it.”
- Daniel 7:8 tn Aram “great,” as also in vv. 11, 20.
- Daniel 7:9 tn Or “the Ancient One” (NAB, NRSV, NLT), although the traditional expression has been retained in the present translation because it is familiar to many readers (cf. TEV “One who had been living for ever”; CEV “the Eternal God”).
- Daniel 7:9 tn Traditionally the Aramaic word נְקֵא (neqeʾ) has been rendered “pure,” but here it more likely means “of a lamb.” Cf. the Syriac neqyaʾ (“a sheep, ewe”). On this word, see further, M. Sokoloff, “ʾamar neqeʾ, ‘Lamb’s Wool’ (Dan 7:9),” JBL 95 (1976): 277-79.
- Daniel 7:9 tn Aram “a flaming fire.”
- Daniel 7:10 tn Aram “were standing before him.”
- Daniel 7:10 tn Aram “judgment sat.”
- Daniel 7:11 tc The LXX and Theodotion lack the words “I was watching” here. It is possible that these words in the MT are a dittography from the first part of the verse.
- Daniel 7:11 tn Aram “and given over to” (so NRSV).
- Daniel 7:12 tn Aram “a prolonging of life was granted to them.”
- Daniel 7:13 tc The LXX has ἐπί (epi, “upon”) here (cf. Matt 24:30; 26:64). Theodotion has μετά (meta, “with”) here (cf. Mark 14:62; Rev 1:7).
- Daniel 7:13 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.
- Daniel 7:13 sn This text is probably the main OT background for Jesus’ use of the term “son of man.” In both Jewish and Christian circles the reference in the book of Daniel has traditionally been understood to refer to an individual, usually in a messianic sense. Many modern scholars, however, understand the reference to have a corporate identity. In this view, the “son of man” is to be equated with the “holy ones” (vv. 18, 21, 22, 25) or the “people of the holy ones” (v. 27) and understood as a reference to the Jewish people. Others understand Daniel’s reference to be to the angel Michael.
- Daniel 7:13 tn Aram “they brought him near.”
- Daniel 7:14 tn Some take “serving” here in the sense of “worshiping.”
- Daniel 7:14 tn Aram “is an eternal authority that will not pass away.”
- Daniel 7:14 tn Aram “is one that will not be destroyed.”
- Daniel 7:15 tn The Aramaic text includes the phrase “in its sheath,” apparently viewing the body as a container or receptacle for the spirit somewhat like a sheath or scabbard is for a knife or a sword (cf. NAB “within its sheath of flesh”). For this phrase the LXX and Vulgate have “in these things.”
- Daniel 7:15 tn Aram “head.”
- Daniel 7:16 tn Aram “what is certain.”
- Daniel 7:16 tn Aram “and made known.”
- Daniel 7:16 tn Aram “matter,” but the matter at hand is of course the vision.
- Daniel 7:18 sn The expression holy ones is either a reference to angels, to human beings devoted to God, or to both. The context is an earthly kingdom the holy ones will possess, and man was appointed to rule the earth (Gen 1:28). The holy ones are defeated and harassed by an earthly ruler in 7:21, 25, and human rulers cannot defeat and harass angels. So the holy ones are almost certainly human beings devoted to God.
- Daniel 7:19 tn Aram “to make certain.”
- Daniel 7:20 tn The words “I also wanted to know” are added in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- Daniel 7:20 tc The conjunction in the MT before “eyes” is odd. The ancient versions do not seem to presuppose it.
- Daniel 7:20 tn Aram “greater than its companions.”
- Daniel 7:21 tn Aram “prevailing against” (KJV, ASV both similar); NASB “overpowering them”; TEV “conquered them.”
- Daniel 7:22 tc In the LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate the verb is active, understanding “judgment” to be the object rather than the subject of the verb (i.e., “the Ancient of Days rendered judgment”). This presupposes a different vocalization of the verb ( יְהַב [yehav] rather than the MT יְהִב [yehiv]).
- Daniel 7:23 tn Aram “thus he said.”
- Daniel 7:24 tn Or “subjugate”; KJV, NASB, NIV “subdue”; ASV, NRSV “put down.”
- Daniel 7:25 tn Aram “wear out” (so KJV, ASV, NRSV); NASB, NLT “wear down.” The word is a hapax legomenon in biblical Aramaic, but in biblical Hebrew it especially refers to wearing out such things as garments. Here it is translated “harass…continually.”
- Daniel 7:25 tn Aram “he will think.”
- Daniel 7:25 tn Aram “times and law.” The present translation is based on the understanding that the expression is a hendiadys.
- Daniel 7:25 sn Although the word times is vocalized in the MT as a plural, it probably should be regarded as a dual. The Masoretes may have been influenced here by the fact that in late Aramaic (and Syriac) the dual forms fall out of use. The meaning would thus be three and a half “times.”
- Daniel 7:26 tn Aram “judgment will sit” (KJV similar).
- Daniel 7:27 tn If the “holy ones” are angels, then this probably refers to the angels as protectors of God’s people. If the “holy ones” are God’s people, then this is an appositional construction, “the people who are the holy ones.” See 8:24 for the corresponding Hebrew phrase and the note there.
- Daniel 7:28 tn Aram “my brightness was changing on me.”
- Daniel 7:28 tn Aram “in my heart.”