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Disciples of John the Baptist at Ephesus

19 While[a] Apollos was in Corinth, Paul went through the inland[b] regions[c] and came to Ephesus. He[d] found some disciples there[e] and said to them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?”[f] They replied,[g] “No, we have not even[h] heard that there is a Holy Spirit.” So Paul[i] said, “Into what then were you baptized?” “Into John’s baptism,” they replied.[j] Paul said, “John baptized with a baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one who was to come after him,[k] that is, in Jesus.” When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus, and when Paul placed[l] his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came[m] upon them, and they began to speak[n] in tongues and to prophesy.[o] (Now there were about twelve men in all.)[p]

Paul Continues to Minister at Ephesus

So Paul[q] entered[r] the synagogue[s] and spoke out fearlessly[t] for three months, addressing[u] and convincing[v] them about the kingdom of God.[w] But when[x] some were stubborn[y] and refused to believe, reviling[z] the Way[aa] before the congregation, he left[ab] them and took the disciples with him,[ac] addressing[ad] them every day[ae] in the lecture hall[af] of Tyrannus. 10 This went on for two years, so that all who lived in the province of Asia,[ag] both Jews and Greeks, heard the word of the Lord.[ah]

The Seven Sons of Sceva

11 God was performing extraordinary[ai] miracles by Paul’s hands, 12 so that when even handkerchiefs or aprons that had touched his body[aj] were brought[ak] to the sick, their diseases left them and the evil spirits went out of them.[al] 13 But some itinerant[am] Jewish exorcists tried to invoke the name[an] of the Lord Jesus over those who were possessed by[ao] evil spirits, saying, “I sternly warn[ap] you by Jesus whom Paul preaches.” 14 (Now seven sons of a man named[aq] Sceva, a Jewish high priest, were doing this.)[ar] 15 But the evil spirit replied to them,[as] “I know about Jesus[at] and I am acquainted with[au] Paul, but who are you?”[av] 16 Then the man who was possessed by[aw] the evil spirit jumped on[ax] them and beat them all into submission.[ay] He prevailed[az] against them so that they fled from that house naked and wounded. 17 This became known to all who lived in Ephesus, both Jews and Greeks; fear came over[ba] them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was praised.[bb] 18 Many of those who had believed came forward,[bc] confessing and making their deeds known.[bd] 19 Large numbers[be] of those who had practiced magic[bf] collected their books[bg] and burned them up in the presence of everyone.[bh] When[bi] the value of the books was added up, it was found to total 50,000 silver coins.[bj] 20 In this way the word of the Lord[bk] continued to grow in power[bl] and to prevail.[bm]

A Riot in Ephesus

21 Now after all these things had taken place,[bn] Paul resolved[bo] to go to Jerusalem, passing through Macedonia[bp] and Achaia.[bq] He said,[br] “After I have been there, I must also see Rome.”[bs] 22 So after sending[bt] two of his assistants,[bu] Timothy and Erastus, to Macedonia,[bv] he himself stayed on for a while in the province of Asia.[bw]

23 At[bx] that time[by] a great disturbance[bz] took place concerning the Way.[ca] 24 For a man named Demetrius, a silversmith who made silver shrines[cb] of Artemis,[cc] brought a great deal[cd] of business[ce] to the craftsmen. 25 He gathered[cf] these[cg] together, along with the workmen in similar trades,[ch] and said, “Men, you know that our prosperity[ci] comes from this business. 26 And you see and hear that this Paul has persuaded[cj] and turned away[ck] a large crowd,[cl] not only in Ephesus but in practically all of the province of Asia,[cm] by saying[cn] that gods made by hands are not gods at all.[co] 27 There is danger not only that this business of ours will come into disrepute,[cp] but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis[cq] will be regarded as nothing,[cr] and she whom all the province of Asia[cs] and the world worship will suffer the loss of her greatness.”[ct]

28 When[cu] they heard[cv] this they became enraged[cw] and began to shout,[cx] “Great is Artemis[cy] of the Ephesians!” 29 The[cz] city was filled with the uproar,[da] and the crowd[db] rushed to the theater[dc] together,[dd] dragging with them Gaius and Aristarchus, the Macedonians who were Paul’s traveling companions. 30 But when Paul wanted to enter the public assembly,[de] the disciples would not let him. 31 Even some of the provincial authorities[df] who were his friends sent[dg] a message[dh] to him, urging him not to venture[di] into the theater. 32 So then some were shouting one thing, some another, for the assembly was in confusion, and most of them did not know why they had met together.[dj] 33 Some of the crowd concluded[dk] it was about[dl] Alexander because the Jews had pushed him to the front.[dm] Alexander, gesturing[dn] with his hand, was wanting to make a defense[do] before the public assembly.[dp] 34 But when they recognized[dq] that he was a Jew, they all shouted in unison,[dr] “Great is Artemis[ds] of the Ephesians!” for about two hours.[dt] 35 After the city secretary[du] quieted the crowd, he said, “Men of Ephesus, what person[dv] is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper[dw] of the temple of the great Artemis[dx] and of her image that fell from heaven?[dy] 36 So because these facts[dz] are indisputable,[ea] you must keep quiet[eb] and not do anything reckless.[ec] 37 For you have brought these men here who are neither temple robbers[ed] nor blasphemers of our goddess.[ee] 38 If then Demetrius and the craftsmen who are with him have a complaint[ef] against someone, the courts are open[eg] and there are proconsuls; let them bring charges against one another there.[eh] 39 But if you want anything in addition,[ei] it will have to be settled[ej] in a legal assembly.[ek] 40 For[el] we are in danger of being charged with rioting[em] today, since there is no cause we can give to explain[en] this disorderly gathering.”[eo] 41 After[ep] he had said[eq] this,[er] he dismissed the assembly.[es]

Footnotes

  1. Acts 19:1 tn Grk “It happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  2. Acts 19:1 tn Or “interior.”
  3. Acts 19:1 tn BDAG 92 s.v. ἀνωτερικός has “upper τὰ ἀ. μέρη the upper (i.e., inland) country, the interior Ac 19:1.”
  4. Acts 19:1 tn Grk “and found.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the sequencing with the following verse the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.
  5. Acts 19:1 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied.
  6. Acts 19:2 tn The participle πιστεύσαντες (pisteusantes) is taken temporally.
  7. Acts 19:2 tn Grk “they [said] to him” (the word “said” is implied in the Greek text).
  8. Acts 19:2 tn This use of ἀλλά (alla) is ascensive and involves an ellipsis (BDAG 45 s.v. ἀλλά 3): “No, [not only did we not receive the Spirit,] but also we have not heard that there is a Holy Spirit.” However, this is lengthy and somewhat awkward in English, and the ascensive meaning can be much more easily represented by including the word “even” after the negation. Apparently these disciples were unaware of the provision of the Spirit that is represented in baptism. The language sounds like they did not know about a Holy Spirit, but this seems to be only linguistic shorthand for not knowing about the Spirit’s presence (Luke 3:15-18). The situation is parallel to that of Apollos. Apollos and these disciples represent those who “complete” their transition to messianic faith as Jews.
  9. Acts 19:3 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  10. Acts 19:3 tn Grk “they said.”
  11. Acts 19:4 sn These disciples may have had their contact with John early on in the Baptist’s ministry before Jesus had emerged. This is the fifth time Luke links John the Baptist and Jesus (Acts 1:5; 11:16; 13:25; 18:25).
  12. Acts 19:6 tn Or “laid.”
  13. Acts 19:6 sn The coming of the Holy Spirit here is another case where the Spirit comes and prophecy results in Acts (see Acts 2). Paul’s action parallels that of Peter (Acts 8) and not just with Gentiles.
  14. Acts 19:6 tn The imperfect verb ἐλάλουν (elaloun) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.
  15. Acts 19:6 tn The imperfect verb ἐπροφήτευον (eprophēteuon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.
  16. Acts 19:7 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  17. Acts 19:8 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  18. Acts 19:8 tn Grk “So entering the synagogue, he spoke out fearlessly.” The participle εἰσελθών (eiselthōn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  19. Acts 19:8 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.
  20. Acts 19:8 tn Or “boldly.”
  21. Acts 19:8 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 19:8. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.
  22. Acts 19:8 tn Or “addressing them persuasively.” The two participles διαλεγόμενος and πείθων (dialegomenos and peithōn) can be understood as a hendiadys (so NIV, NRSV), thus, “addressing them persuasively.”
  23. Acts 19:8 sn To talk about Jesus as the Christ who has come is to talk about the kingdom of God. This is yet another summary of the message like that in 18:28. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching (along with Paul’s teaching here) has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21; Acts 1:3.
  24. Acts 19:9 tn BDAG 1105-6 s.v. ὡς 8.b lists this use as a temporal conjunction.
  25. Acts 19:9 tn Or “some became hardened.” See BDAG 930 s.v. σκληρύνω b and Acts 7:51-53.
  26. Acts 19:9 tn Or “speaking evil of.” BDAG 500 s.v. κακολογέω has “speak evil of, revile, insultτὶ someth. τὴν ὁδόν the Way (i.e. Christian way of life) Ac 19:9.”
  27. Acts 19:9 sn The Way refers to the Christian movement (Christianity). Luke frequently refers to it as “the Way” (Acts 9:2; 18:25-26; 19:23; 22:4; 24:14, 22).
  28. Acts 19:9 tn Grk “leaving them, he took.” The participle ἀποστάς (apostas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  29. Acts 19:9 tn The words “with him” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.
  30. Acts 19:9 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 19:9. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.
  31. Acts 19:9 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase in this verse.
  32. Acts 19:9 tn The “lecture hall” was a place where teachers and pupils met. The term is a NT hapax legomenon (BDAG 982 s.v. σχολή). L&N 7.14 notes, “it is better to use a translation such as ‘lecture hall’ rather than ‘school,’ since one does not wish to give the impression of the typical classroom situation characteristic of present-day schools.”
  33. Acts 19:10 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia. The Roman province of Asia made up about one-third of modern Asia Minor and was on the western side of it. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.sn The expression all who lived in the province of Asia is good Semitic hyperbole (see Col 1:7, “all the world”). The message was now available to the region.
  34. Acts 19:10 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rhēma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logos tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:20; 1 Thess 1:8; 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.
  35. Acts 19:11 tn BDAG 1019 s.v. τυγχάνω 2.d states, “δυνάμεις οὐ τὰς τυχούσας extraordinary miracles Ac 19:11.”
  36. Acts 19:12 tn Or “skin” (the outer surface of the body).
  37. Acts 19:12 tn Or “were taken.” It might be that as word went out into the region that since the sick could not come to Paul, healing was brought to them this way. The “handkerchiefs” are probably face cloths for wiping perspiration (see BDAG 934 s.v. σουδάριον) while the “aprons” might be material worn by workmen (BDAG 923-24 s.v. σιμικίνθιον).
  38. Acts 19:12 tn The words “of them” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.
  39. Acts 19:13 tn Grk “some Jewish exorcists who traveled about.” The adjectival participle περιερχομένων (perierchomenōn) has been translated as “itinerant.”
  40. Acts 19:13 tn Grk “to name the name.”
  41. Acts 19:13 tn Grk “who had.” Here ἔχω (echō) is used of demon possession, a common usage according to BDAG 421 s.v. ἔχω 7.a.α.
  42. Acts 19:13 sn The expression I sternly warn you means “I charge you as under oath.”
  43. Acts 19:14 tn Grk “a certain Sceva.”
  44. Acts 19:14 sn Within the sequence of the narrative, this amounts to a parenthetical note by the author.
  45. Acts 19:15 tn Grk “answered and said to them.” The expression, redundant in English, has been simplified to “replied.”
  46. Acts 19:15 tn Grk “Jesus I know about.” Here ᾿Ιησοῦν (Iēsoun) is in emphatic position in Greek, but placing the object first is not normal in contemporary English style.
  47. Acts 19:15 tn BDAG 380 s.v. ἐπίσταμαι 2 has “know, be acquainted with τινάτὸν Παῦλον Ac 19:15.” Here the translation “be acquainted with” was used to differentiate from the previous phrase which has γινώσκω (ginōskō).
  48. Acts 19:15 sn But who are you? This account shows how the power of Paul was so distinct that parallel claims to access that power were denied. In fact, such manipulation, by those who did not know Jesus, was judged (v. 16). The indirect way in which the exorcists made the appeal shows their distance from Jesus.
  49. Acts 19:16 tn Grk “in whom the evil spirit was.”
  50. Acts 19:16 tn Grk “the man in whom the evil spirit was, jumping on them.” The participle ἐφαλόμενος (ephalomenos) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. L&N 15.239 has “ἐφαλόμενος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς ‘the man jumped on them’ Ac 19:16.”
  51. Acts 19:16 tn Grk “and beating them all into submission.” The participle κατακυριεύσας (katakurieusas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. According to W. Foerster, TDNT 3:1098, the word means “the exercise of dominion against someone, i.e., to one’s own advantage.” These exorcists were shown to be powerless in comparison to Jesus who was working through Paul.
  52. Acts 19:16 tn BDAG 484 s.v. ἰσχύω 3 has “win out, prevailκατά τινος over, against someone Ac 19:16.”
  53. Acts 19:17 tn Grk “fell on.” BDAG 377 s.v. ἐπιπίπτω 2 has “φόβος ἐ. ἐπί τινα fear came upon someoneAc 19:17.”
  54. Acts 19:17 tn Or “exalted.”
  55. Acts 19:18 tn Grk “came”; the word “forward” is supplied in the translation to clarify the meaning and to conform to the contemporary English idiom.
  56. Acts 19:18 tn Or “confessing and disclosing their deeds.” BDAG 59 s.v. ἀναγγέλλω 2 has “W. ἐξομολογεῖσθαι: . τὰς πράξεις αὐτὸν make their deeds known Ac 19:18.”sn Making their deeds known. Ephesus was a major pagan religious center with much syncretistic “magical” practice. Coming to Jesus changed the lives and attitudes of these believers, creating a social impact.
  57. Acts 19:19 tn BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός 4.a has “many, quite a few” for ἱκανοί (hikanoi) in this verse.
  58. Acts 19:19 tn On this term see BDAG 800 s.v. περίεργος 2.
  59. Acts 19:19 tn Or “scrolls.”
  60. Acts 19:19 tn Or “burned them up publicly.” L&N 14.66 has “‘they brought their books together and burned them up in the presence of everyone’ Ac 19:19.”
  61. Acts 19:19 tn Grk “and when.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.
  62. Acts 19:19 tn Or “fifty thousand silver drachmas.” BDAG 128 s.v. ἀργύριον 2.c states, “ἀργυρίου μυριάδας πέντε 50,000 (Attic silver) drachmas Ac 19:19.” Another way to express the value would be in sheep: One drachma could buy one sheep. So this many drachmas could purchase a huge flock of sheep. A drachma also equals a denarius, or a day’s wage for the average worker. So this amount would be equal to 50,000 work days or in excess of 8,300 weeks of labor (the weeks are calculated at six working days because of the Jewish cultural context). The impact of Christianity on the Ephesian economy was considerable (note in regard to this the concerns expressed in 19:26-27).
  63. Acts 19:20 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rhēma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logos tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10; 1 Thess 1:8; 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.
  64. Acts 19:20 tn The imperfect verb ηὔξανεν (ēuxanen) has been translated as a progressive imperfect, as has the following verb ἴσχυεν (ischuen).
  65. Acts 19:20 sn The word of the Lord…to prevail. Luke portrays the impact of Christianity in terms of the Lord’s transforming power in the lives of individuals.
  66. Acts 19:21 tn Grk “all these things had been fulfilled.”
  67. Acts 19:21 tn Grk “Paul purposed in [his] spirit” (an idiom). According to BDAG 1003 s.v. τίθημι 1.b.ε the entire idiom means “to resolve” (or “decide”): “ἔθετο ὁ Παῦλος ἐν τῷ πνεύματι w. inf. foll. Paul resolved 19:21.”
  68. Acts 19:21 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.
  69. Acts 19:21 sn Achaia was the Roman province of Achaia located across the Aegean Sea from Ephesus. Its principal city was Corinth.
  70. Acts 19:21 tn Grk “Achaia, saying.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the awkwardness in English of having two participial clauses following one another (“passing through…saying”), the participle εἰπών (eipōn) has been translated as a finite verb and a new sentence begun here in the translation.
  71. Acts 19:21 sn This is the first time Paul mentions Rome. He realized the message of Christianity could impact that society even at its heights.
  72. Acts 19:22 tn The aorist participle ἀποστείλας (aposteilas) has been taken temporally reflecting action antecedent to that of the main verb (ἐπέσχεν, epeschen).
  73. Acts 19:22 tn Grk “two of those who ministered to him.”
  74. Acts 19:22 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.
  75. Acts 19:22 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia. The Roman province of Asia made up about one-third of modern Asia Minor and was on the western side of it. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
  76. Acts 19:23 tn Grk “There happened at that time.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Instead the verb “took place” has been supplied in the translation.
  77. Acts 19:23 tn BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.2.a, “in definite indications of time…Of the past: κ. ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρόν at that time, thenAc 12:1; 19:23.”
  78. Acts 19:23 tn Grk “no little disturbance” (an idiom; see BDAG 991 s.v. τάραχος 2).
  79. Acts 19:23 sn The Way refers to the Christian movement (Christianity).
  80. Acts 19:24 tn BDAG 665 s.v. ναός 1.a states, “Specif. of temples: of replicas of the temple of Artemis at Ephesus 19:24…but here, near ἱερόν vs. 27ναός can be understood in the more restricted sense shrine, where the image of the goddess stood.”
  81. Acts 19:24 sn Artemis was the name of a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.
  82. Acts 19:24 tn Grk “brought not a little business” (an idiom).
  83. Acts 19:24 sn A great deal of business. The charge that Christianity brought economic and/or social upheaval was made a number of times in Acts: 16:20-21; 17:6-7; 18:13.
  84. Acts 19:25 tn Grk “gathering.” The participle συναθροίσας (sunathroisas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  85. Acts 19:25 tn Grk “whom”; because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) has been replaced with a pronoun (“these”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.
  86. Acts 19:25 sn Workmen in similar trades. In effect, Demetrius gathered the Ephesian chamber of commerce together to hear about the threat to their prosperity.
  87. Acts 19:25 tn Another possible meaning is “that this business is an easy way for us to earn a living.”
  88. Acts 19:26 tn Grk “persuading.” The participle πείσας (peisas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  89. Acts 19:26 tn Or “misled.”
  90. Acts 19:26 tn BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός 3.a has “of pers. ὄχλος a large crowdAc 11:24, 26; 19:26.”
  91. Acts 19:26 tn Grk “Asia”; see the note on this word in v. 22.
  92. Acts 19:26 tn The participle λέγων (legōn) has been regarded as indicating instrumentality.
  93. Acts 19:26 tn The words “at all” are not in the Greek text but are implied.sn Gods made by hands are not gods at all. Paul preached against paganism’s idolatry. Here is a one-line summary of a speech like that in Acts 17:22-31.
  94. Acts 19:27 tn Or “come under public criticism.” BDAG 101 s.v. ἀπελεγμός has “come into disrepute Ac 19:27.”
  95. Acts 19:27 sn Artemis was the name of a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.
  96. Acts 19:27 tn BDAG 597 s.v. λογίζομαι 1.b has “εἰς οὐθὲν λογισθῆναι be looked upon as nothingAc 19:27.”
  97. Acts 19:27 tn Grk “Asia”; see the note on this word in v. 22.
  98. Acts 19:27 tn Or “her magnificence.” BDAG 488 s.v. καθαιρέω 2.b has “καθαιρεῖσθαι τῆς μεγαλειότητος αὐτῆς suffer the loss of her magnificence Ac 19:27”; L&N 13.38 has “‘and to have her greatness done away with’ Ac 19:27.”sn Suffer the loss of her greatness. It is important to appreciate that money alone was not the issue, even for the pagan Ephesians. The issue was ultimately the dishonor of their goddess to whom they were devoted in worship. The battle was a “cosmic” one between deities.
  99. Acts 19:28 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
  100. Acts 19:28 tn Grk “And hearing.” The participle ἀκούσαντες (akousantes) has been taken temporally.
  101. Acts 19:28 tn Grk “they became filled with rage” (an idiom). The reaction of the Ephesians here is like that of the Jews earlier (Acts 7:54).
  102. Acts 19:28 tn Grk “and began shouting, saying.” The imperfect verb ἔκραζον (ekrazon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect. The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
  103. Acts 19:28 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.
  104. Acts 19:29 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
  105. Acts 19:29 tn L&N 39.43 has “‘the uproar spread throughout the whole city’ (literally ‘the city was filled with uproar’) Ac 19:29.” BDAG 954 s.v. σύγχυσις has “confusion, tumult.”
  106. Acts 19:29 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  107. Acts 19:29 sn To the theater. This location made the event a public spectacle. The Grand Theater in Ephesus (still standing today) stood facing down the main thoroughfare of the city toward the docks. It had a seating capacity of 25,000.
  108. Acts 19:29 tn Grk “to the theater with one accord.”
  109. Acts 19:30 tn Or “enter the crowd.” According to BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2, “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assemblyεἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν δ. go into the assembly 19:30.”
  110. Acts 19:31 tn Grk “Asiarchs” (high-ranking officials of the province of Asia).
  111. Acts 19:31 tn Grk “sending”; the participle πέμψαντες (pempsantes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  112. Acts 19:31 tn The words “a message” are not in the Greek text but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
  113. Acts 19:31 tn BDAG 242-43 s.v. δίδωμι 11 has “to cause (oneself) to go, go, venture somewhere (cp. our older ‘betake oneself’)…Ac 19:31.” The desire of these sympathetic authorities was surely to protect Paul’s life. The detail indicates how dangerous things had become.
  114. Acts 19:32 tn Or “had assembled.”
  115. Acts 19:33 tn Or “Some of the crowd gave instructions to.”
  116. Acts 19:33 tn The words “it was about” are not in the Greek text but are implied; ᾿Αλέξανδρον (Alexandron) is taken to be an accusative of general reference.
  117. Acts 19:33 tn BDAG 865 s.v. προβάλλω 1 has “to cause to come forward, put forwardτινά someone…push someone forward to speak in the theater…Ac 19:33.”
  118. Acts 19:33 tn Or “motioning.”
  119. Acts 19:33 sn The nature of Alexander’s defense is not clear. It appears he was going to explain, as a Jew, that the problem was not caused by Jews, but by those of “the Way.” However, he never got a chance to speak.
  120. Acts 19:33 tn Or “before the crowd.” According to BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2, “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assemblyἀπολογεῖσθαι τῷ δ. make a defense before the assembly vs. 33.”
  121. Acts 19:34 tn Grk “But recognizing.” The participle ἐπιγνόντες (epignontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  122. Acts 19:34 tn Grk “[they shouted] with one voice from all of them” (an idiom).
  123. Acts 19:34 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus, 1.25 mi (2 km) northeast of the Grand Theater. Dimensions were 418 ft by 239 ft (125 m by 72 m) for the platform; the temple proper was 377 ft by 180 ft (113 m by 54 m). The roof was supported by 117 columns, each 60 ft (18 m) high by 6 ft (1.8 m) in diameter. The Emperor Justinian of Byzantium later took these columns for use in construction of the Hagia Sophia, where they still exist (in modern day Istanbul).
  124. Acts 19:34 sn They all shouted…for about two hours. The extent of the tumult shows the racial and social tensions of a cosmopolitan city like Ephesus, indicating what the Christians in such locations had to face.
  125. Acts 19:35 tn Or “clerk.” The “scribe” (γραμματεύς, grammateus) was the keeper of the city’s records.
  126. Acts 19:35 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos).
  127. Acts 19:35 tn See BDAG 670 s.v. νεωκόρος. The city is described as the “warden” or “guardian” of the goddess and her temple.
  128. Acts 19:35 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.
  129. Acts 19:35 tn Or “from the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).sn The expression fell from heaven adds a note of apologetic about the heavenly origin of the goddess. The city’s identity and well-being was wrapped up with this connection, in their view. Many interpreters view her image that fell from heaven as a stone meteorite regarded as a sacred object.
  130. Acts 19:36 tn Grk “these things.”
  131. Acts 19:36 tn The genitive absolute construction with the participle ὄντων (ontōn) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. On the term translated “indisputable” see BDAG 68-69 s.v. ἀναντίρρητος which has “not to be contradicted, undeniable.”
  132. Acts 19:36 tn Grk “it is necessary that you be quiet.”
  133. Acts 19:36 tn L&N 88.98 has “pertaining to impetuous and reckless behavior—‘reckless, impetuous.’…‘so then, you must calm down and not do anything reckless’ Ac 19:36.” The city secretary was asking that order be restored.
  134. Acts 19:37 tn Or perhaps, “desecrators of temples.”
  135. Acts 19:37 sn Nor blasphemers of our goddess. There was no formal crime with which Paul could be charged. He had the right to his religion as long as he did not act physically against the temple. Since no overt act had taken place, the official wanted the community to maintain the status quo on these religious matters. The remarks suggest Paul was innocent of any civil crime.
  136. Acts 19:38 tn BDAG 600 s.v. λόγος 1.a.ε has “ἔχειν πρός τινα λόγον have a complaint against someone…19:38.”
  137. Acts 19:38 tn L&N 56.1 has ‘if Demetrius and his workers have an accusation against someone, the courts are open’ Ac 19:38.”
  138. Acts 19:38 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied. The official’s request is that the legal system be respected.
  139. Acts 19:39 tn Or “anything more than this.”
  140. Acts 19:39 tn Or “resolved.”
  141. Acts 19:39 tn Or “in a legal meeting of the citizens.” L&N 30.81 has “ἐν τῇ ἐννόμῳ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἐπιλυθήσεται ‘it will have to be settled in a legal meeting of the citizens’ Ac 19:39.” This meeting took place three times a year.
  142. Acts 19:40 tn Grk “For indeed.” The ascensive force of καί (kai) would be awkward to translate here.
  143. Acts 19:40 tn The term translated “rioting” refers to a revolt or uprising (BDAG 940 s.v. στάσις 2, 3). This would threaten Roman rule and invite Roman intervention.
  144. Acts 19:40 tn Or “to account for.” Grk “since there is no cause concerning which we can give account concerning this disorderly gathering.” The complexity of the Greek relative clause (“which”) and the multiple prepositions (“concerning”) have been simplified in the translation consistent with contemporary English style.
  145. Acts 19:40 tn Or “commotion.” BDAG 979 s.v. συστροφή 1 gives the meaning “a tumultuous gathering of people, disorderly/seditious gathering or commotionAc 19:40.”
  146. Acts 19:41 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
  147. Acts 19:41 tn Grk “And saying.” The participle εἰπών (eipōn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  148. Acts 19:41 tn Grk “these things.”
  149. Acts 19:41 sn Verse 41 in the English text is included as part of verse 40 in the standard critical editions of the Greek NT.

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